SSD Full Form and How Does It Work?

SSD Full Form and How Does It Work?

The SSD full form is “Solid State Drive.” It is a device for mass storage much like a conventional hard disk drive (HDD). It enables reading and writing data, and it keeps the data that has been stored in a permanent state even after the power is turned off. It is possible to attach it to a computer using the IDE or SATA interfaces that are standard. Flash drives and solid state disks are both names that are used to refer to SSDs.

Because it is built with floating gate transistors, also known as FGRs, to store electrical charge, solid-state drives (SSDs) are classified as non-volatile storage medium. As a result, the information is preserved even after the device is disconnected from its source of power. A single bit of information, represented by the value 1 for a charged cell and the value 0 for a cell that does not have an electric charge, is stored in each FGR of an SSD.

Hard disk drives (HDDs) are slower and noisier than solid-state drives (SSDs), which have flash memory that can be written to, moved between, and erased via electronic means. In contrast to HDDs, however, SSDs come with a higher price tag and a smaller capacity for data storage. Solid-state drives are frequently seen in high-end machines or in consumer personal computers in the capacity of supplementary storage devices.

What is SSD components?

A solid-state drive (SSD) is primarily made up of Flash Memory Chips and a Flash Controller.

SSD Uses

The use of solid-state drives (SSDs) initially began in high-performance technical fields and in PCs intended for enthusiasts, where the drives’ very quick access times and high throughput justified the devices’ more expensive price tag. However, in recent years, they have established themselves as a standard feature, and in certain common low-cost laptops and personal computers, they are even the default option.

Solid-state drives (SSDs) offer particular advantages in the following domains:


Because access times and file transfer rates are so important for businesses that operate with massive volumes of data (such programming environments or data analysis), many of these businesses rely on solid-state drives (SSDs).


Gaming computers have always pushed the limits of the technology that was available at the time, which justifies the purchase of rather pricey equipment for the purpose of improving gaming performance. This is especially true with regard to storage, as today’s blockbuster games continually read from and write to their respective files (e. g. textures, maps, levels, characters).


Because of their low power needs, solid-state drives (SSDs) contribute to longer battery life in portable electronic devices like laptops and tablets. Additionally, solid-state drives (SSDs) are resistant to shock, which lowers the risk of data loss when mobile devices are dropped.


Read and write speeds on enterprise servers necessitate the use of solid-state drives (SSDs) in order to provide adequate service to client computers.

What is SSD types and differences

When searching for a solid state drive (SSD), you are going to come across a lot of different names, such as mSATA and PCIe. The question now is, what does it all mean? The following is an overview of the information that you must know.

In order to install a solid-state drive (SSD), you will need to connect it to your computer using a particular interface. These are the common interfaces:

PCIe and NVMe solid state drives PCI Express (PCIe) is typically used to connect high-performance peripherals such as graphics cards, network cards, and other similar devices. This interface provides you with high bandwidth and low latency, making it suitable for use in situations in which you want extremely rapid communication between the solid state drive (SSD) and your central processing unit (CPU) and random access memory (RAM). This connection type is based on the Nonvolatile Memory Express standard (NVMe), which enables faster input output per second (IOPS) and even lower latency than SATA (which we’ll get to in a moment). SSDs that use this connection type are referred to as solid-state drives (SSDs). The raw throughput of NVMe can reach up to 16 GBits per second, and because it uses several parallel channels, it can run at speeds of up to 4,000 MB per second.

mSATA III, SATA III, and traditional solid-state drives (SSDs) Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) is an older interface that was built primarily for storage, with rates up to 6 GBit/s or around 600 MB per second. mSATA III, SATA III, and regular SSDs. NVME, which is a lot quicker, is gradually replacing SATA as the preferred storage medium. However, upgrading to a SATA solid-state drive (SSD) would still be beneficial for older computers or laptops that only have a hard disk drive.

There is a wide range of storage capacity available for solid-state drives (SSDs), beginning at about 32 gigabytes and going as high as five terabytes in the consumer market. (Of course, the capacity of storage that is enterprise grade is substantially higher, with prices that are commensurately higher.)

During the brief reign of netbooks (remember those?They were inexpensive, but slow, and flimsy), the well-known Asus Eee PC series made use of 1 to 4 GB of solid-state drives (SSDs) as storage, from which certain components of the operating system were run in order to facilitate quicker access. This was the first time that SSDs were used in a mainstream application. After that point, solid-state drives (SSDs) started appearing in ultrabooks and, eventually, desktop computers. The most common capacities available nowadays range between 250 and 500 gigabytes (GB), which is more than enough space to store your Windows operating system, the majority of your personal files, and the most popular programs.

What is M2 SSD?

M. 2 solid state drives (SSDs) are solid state drives (SSDs) with a tiny form factor that are utilized in internally mounted storage expansion cards. M. 2 solid-state drives (SSDs) are meant to provide high-performance storage in devices that are tiny and have power constraints, such as ultrabook laptops and tablet computers. These SSDs conform to a specification established by the computer industry. In general, they are more compact than other SSDs that are comparable in size, such as the tiny Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (mSATA).

SSDs are a type of storage media that save persistent data on solid state flash memory. SSDs are also known as solid state drives. An SSD, as opposed to a hard disk drive (HDD), does not have any moving parts that can become damaged or spin in any direction. M. 2 is the current name for what was once known as the Next Generation Form Factor, which was the previous name for the specification that defines the M. 2 SSD interface (pronounced M dot 2). M. 2 solid-state drives are helpful for people who are creating or updating a personal computer (PC) or laptop for use cases like gaming, 3D animation, video editing, or transferring huge files.

M. 2 is compatible with a wide variety of computer protocols and applications, including SATA and Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe). Products that are M. 2-compatible are not restricted to just solid-state drives either. Graphics cards and artificial intelligence accelerator cards that use the M. 2 specification can make use of the specification because it supports protocols such as Universal Serial Buses (USBs) and Wi Fi.

The SATA International Organization and the PCI Special Interest Group, which is a consortium of companies from the technology industry, are the organizations that were responsible for defining the M. 2 form factor specification.

How is M2 SSD disk work?

M. 2 modules have the ability to connect with a variety of different device classes, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, near field communication, and wireless wide area networks. However, M. 2 form factors are most frequently connected with solid-state drives (SSDs) for the purpose of data storage.

M. 2 SSDs may connect to a motherboard directly without the use of any cables. Instead, a special M. 2 connector slot on the motherboard is used to facilitate the direct connection of these components to the motherboard.

A M. 2 solid-state drive is compatible with both SATA and PCIe protocols for data transfer. SATA is a standard that is used to connect hard disk drives (HDDs) to computer systems and transport data between them. PCIe is a standard for a serial extension bus that is used to connect a computer to one or more devices that are considered to be peripherals.

M. 2 solid-state drives (SSDs) also support nonvolatile memory express (NVMe) devices that are based on PCIe. The speed at which data is transferred between client systems and SSDs while using a PCIe bus can be increased using NVMe. In order to boost performance and cut down on bottlenecks, NVMe support was built. In addition to this, it provides increased processing in parallel for read and write requests. Because of the way it is constructed, NVMe support can contribute up to five times more bandwidth than SATA M. 2 models, which may allow a computer to do operations like file transfers more quickly.

M. 2 solid-state drives (SSDs) can also have either a single or a double sided design. Single-sided M.2 boards are utilized in situations where there is a restricted amount of space, such as in ultra-thin laptops. Double-sided chips, on the other hand, require more physical space but can hold more information than single-sided chips.

The M.2 device features cutouts in one of its ends that serve as connectors and are referred to as module keys. M. 2 modules are rectangular. On one edge is where you’ll find the edge connector, and on the other edge you’ll find the mounting hole. The edge connection has a total of 75 available places and can accommodate up to 67 pins. Each pin can handle a maximum of 50 volts and 0.5 amps of current.




EEPROM full form is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EEPROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and a modified version of EPROM. EEPROM can be erased. electronically and reprogrammed using the same chip.

EPROM full form is Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EPROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and can be erased using UV signals. It is used as a chip in computers to store specific digital data usually a small program.

PROM full form is Programmable Read Only Memory. PROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and can not be erased. We can only program it once and cannot be reused for another program.

ROM full form is Read Only Memory. ROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and can not be erased. So the factory programmed it once and cannot be reprogrammed.

EEPROM, EPROM, and PROM are types of ROM. They are nonvolatile memory which means the data still exist when you turn off the computer.

One of EEPROM’s uses is BIOS, where you can update it once the newer version is available.

EEPROM Advantages

  • Can be reprogrammed several times
  • No need to remove the chip from its’s place when needs to be reprogrammed.
  • Data is non Volatile

EEPROM Advantages

  • More expensive than PROM and EPROM
  • Data retention lifespan is shorter
  • EEPROM is slower in terms of read and write operation than RAM

Is Flash Disk another form of EEPROM?

Yes Flash disk is a special model of EEPROM. Flash memory chips have a structure that is identical to that of EEPROM, and they use the same standard PC voltages for erasing and reprogramming. Additionally, the initial step is to delete a complete block of bytes.

When erasing a whole block of FGTs, flash memory relies on a single ordinary MOS transistor to do the job. The vast majority of EEPROMs are comprised of one MOS transistor for every eight FGTs. While the MOS transistor gets rid of the charge, the charge is held by the FGT.

These days, flash memory modules have the capacity to store vast amounts of data—on the order of gigabytes and even more—making them ideal for use in computers and cameras. This data may be completely static or only partially static. In contrast, conventional EEPROM memory chips are typically used on circuit boards to store only little quantities of data or computer instructions. These chips are not capable of reading or writing data.

HDD Full Form

HDD Full Form

HDD full form is Hard Disk Drive. Sometimes called a hard drive, hard disk, or even HD.

What is Hard Disk Drive?

A hard disk drive (HDD) is a type of data storage device that is housed within the computer. Inside of it are disks that spin, and these disks store data via magnetic fields. An arm on the hard disk drive (HDD) has a number of “heads,” which are actually transducers that read and write data on the disk. It operates in a manner analogous to that of a turntable record player, complete with an LP record (the hard disk) and a needle that is attached to an arm (transducers). In order to access various data, the arm moves over the surface of the disk, moving the heads with it.

Hard disk drives (HDDs) are known as a legacy technology because they have been around for significantly longer than solid-state drives (SSDs). In general, they have a cheaper cost and are more practical for data that does not need to be viewed frequently, such as backups of images, videos, or business files. This type of data does not need to be accessed frequently and so does not require as much space. They can be obtained in two different standard form factors. 2. 5 inches, which is a common screen size for laptops, and 3. 5 inches (desktop computers).

How Do Hard Disk Drive Work?

The most fundamental kind of hard drives are those that are made up of numerous disk platters. A disk platter is a circular disk that can be made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is positioned around a spindle inside of an enclosed chamber. A motor that is attached to the spindle is responsible for giving rotation to the platter. Additionally contained within the chamber are the read/write heads, which use a magnetic head to magnetically record information both to and from the tracks located on the platters. In addition, each disk has a very thin magnetic coating applied on it.

Up to 15,000 revolutions per minute can be achieved by the motor while the platters are spinning. A second motor is responsible for controlling the position of the read and write heads, which are responsible for magnetically recording and reading information from each platter as the platters spin.

Why Is A Hard Disk Needed by A Computer?

The installation of operating systems, programs, and extra storage devices, as well as the saving of documents, all require the use of storage devices such as hard disks. Users of computers would not be able to save programs to their machines, save files or documents, or store them in their computers if they did not have devices like HDDs that can retain data even after they have been turned off. Because of this, each and every computer needs to have at least one storage device that can keep data indefinitely for as long as it is required.

What Is The Capacity Of A Hard Disk?

Some of the most common storage drive capacities include the following:

Currently, the highest capacity HDD is 20 TB. However, an HDD actually has less space than advertised, as the operating system, file system structures and some data redundancy procedures use a portion of that space.

Form Factor and Hard Drive Components

The spindle, the disk platter, the actuator, the actuator arm, and the read/write head are the components that make up the hard disk drive. The term “hard disk” really refers to the set of stacked disks that make up the section of the hard disk drive (HDD) that is charged electromagnetically and stores and allows access to data on that surface. However, the term “hard disk” can also be used to refer to the entire unit.

The term “HDD form factor” refers to the physical size of the data storage device, also known as its geometry. The length, breadth, and height of HDD form factors, as well as the position and orientation of the host interface connector, are all governed by a set of industry standards. HDD form factors also adhere to these criteria. Having a form factor that is a recognized industry standard helps to establish a level of compatibility between various types of computer devices.

2. 5 inches and 3. 5 inches are the most popular sizes for hard disk drives (HDDs) found in enterprise systems. These sizes are also known as small form factor (SFF) and big form factor (LFF). The sizes of 2. 5 inches and 3. 5 inches are approximately the diameter of the platter that is housed within the drive enclosures.

There are other form factors, but by 2009, manufacturers had stopped developing devices with 1.35 inches, 1 inches, and 0.85 inches as their form factors. Because of its decreasing cost, flash has rendered these other form factors nearly obsolete. In addition to this, it is essential to keep in mind that although the sizes are given in inches, the actual dimensions are provided in millimeters.

The hard disk drive (HDD) format is supported by a significant number of solid-state drives (SSDs). The SATA or serial attached SCSI (SAS) interface is typically utilized by SSDs that are designed to fit into the same slots as hard disk drives (HDDs) in order to transport data to and from the host computing system.

Hard Drive Failures

There is a wide variety of causes that can lead to hard disk failure. Failures, on the other hand, can typically be broken down into the following:

Hard Drive Development

Hard disk drives that make use of shingled magnetic recording (SMR) technology were made available by Seagate Technology in the year 2013. Instead of arranging the magnetic tracks on a hard disk such that they are parallel to one another, SMR stacks them on top of one another on each disk. This results in a significantly higher storage density. It is called “shingled” because the tracks overlap in a manner that is analogous to how shingles on a roof do.

In 2012, HGST was the company that made public the first helium-filled hard disk drive. Helium is less dense, cooler, and lighter than air. It also consumes less power than regular hard disk drives, enhances drive density, and improves performance. In 2016, Seagate stated that it would be releasing its own own 10 TB helium hard disk.

Drive manufacturer Western Digital introduced two hard disk drives (HDD) with a capacity of 20 TB in 2021. These were the Ultrastar DC HC560 and the WD Gold HDD Enterprise Class SATA HDD. The greatest hard drive capacity that can be purchased now is 20 terabytes. Both of these hard disk drives have a form factor of 3.5 inches but are best suited for distinct kinds of applications. The Ultrastar DC HC560 is designed for use by cloud storage providers in addition to servers used in businesses, security systems, and network attached storage devices. The WD Gold hard disk drive is tailored to meet the needs of large enterprises that manage demanding application workloads.

HDD advantages

  • When compared to other types of data storage devices, hard disk drives (HDDs) are more reasonably priced.
  • The storage base capacity of HDDs is significantly higher.
  • The memory found in HDDs is non-volatile.
  • The lifespan of HDDs is significantly higher than SSD.

HDD Disadvantages

  • There are mechanical parts that keep moving
  • The hard disk is broken when the disk surface scratches.
  • Emitting noise because the hard disk is spinning.
  • More electricity is required than SSD
  • Form factors are bigger than SSD
  • Emitting heat
  • Slower access speed than SSD


There is a lot of data that can be stored on a hard disk drive, and it can read and write data much more quickly than DVDs but slower than SSD. The storage capacity is easy to be expanded. However when a hard disk crash your data can be lost forever, thus you must have a backup so you can restore it to the new harddrive.

GPU Full Form

GPU Full Form

GPU full form is Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is a specialized computer processor that was first developed to speed up the process of producing visuals.

Because GPUs are able to handle multiple pieces of data concurrently, they are particularly valuable for applications such as machine learning, video editing, and gaming.

Graphics processing units (GPUs) can either be included into a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) or sold separately as a standalone piece of hardware.

The development of graphics processing technology has resulted in the delivery of novel advantages to the field of computer science. The most recent graphics processing units (GPUs) provide up new opportunities in a variety of domains, including gaming, the development of content, machine learning, and more.

The development of graphics processing technology has resulted in the delivery of novel advantages to the field of computer science. The most recent graphics processing units (GPUs) provide up new opportunities in a variety of domains, including gaming, the development of content, machine learning, and more.

GPU VS CPU What is the difference?

The central processing unit, or CPU, is often referred to as the “brains” of a personal computer. The GPU is its heart and soul. However, graphics processing units (GPUs) have broken free of the limits of the traditional personal computer over the course of the past decade.

The use of GPUs has sparked an uptick in artificial intelligence all across the world. They have developed into an essential component of contemporary supercomputing. They are now a part of the massive new hyperscale data centers that have been constructed. They are still highly sought after by gamers, but have evolved into accelerators that speed up a variety of functions, including encryption, networking, and artificial intelligence.

And they continue to push the boundaries of gaming and professional graphics inside workstations, desktop PCs, and the next generation of portable computing devices.

What Function Does a GPU Serve?

The graphics processing unit, sometimes known as a GPU, has quickly emerged as one of the most critical components of modern computing technology, applicable to both home and commercial settings. The graphics processing unit (GPU), which was developed specifically for parallel processing, is utilized in a broad variety of applications, including graphics and video rendering. In spite of the fact that they are most recognized for the capabilities they offer in gaming, GPUs are increasingly finding usage in fields such as creative creation and artificial intelligence (AI).

The original purpose of graphics processing units (GPUs) was to speed up the rendering of three-dimensional visuals. They were able to expand their capacities over time by becoming more programmable and versatile as time went on. Because of this, graphics programmers were able to generate more fascinating visual effects and more realistic scenes by utilizing more advanced lighting and shadowing techniques. To substantially speed extra tasks in high performance computing (HPC), deep learning, and other areas, other engineers began to harness the capabilities of graphics processing units (GPUs).

Collaboration Between the GPU and the CPU

The central processing unit (CPU) was the direct ancestor of the graphics processing unit (GPU) (central processing unit). While central processing units (CPUs) have continued to bring performance improvements thanks to architectural advancements, increased clock rates, and the inclusion of cores, graphics processing units (GPUs) are purpose-built to expedite the processing of computer graphics workloads. When looking for a new computer, it can be useful to have some understanding of the differences between the functions performed by the central processing unit (CPU) and the graphics processing unit (GPU), so that you can get the most out of both.

What Is the Difference Between a Graphics Card and a GPU?

There is a distinction between a graphics processing unit (GPU) and a graphics card (also known as a video card), despite the fact that people frequently use these terms interchangeably. A graphics card is an add-on board that incorporates the GPU in the same way that a motherboard contains the central processing unit (CPU). This board also includes the plethora of components necessary to allow the GPU to work and connect to the rest of the system. These components are required to allow the GPU to function.

There are two primary categories of GPUs.

An Integrated GPU Graphics Processing Unit

A graphics processing unit that is integrated into the CPU does not come on its own separate card but rather is embedded alongside the CPU. A discrete graphics processing unit (GPU) is a separate chip that is often coupled to a PCI Express slot and is housed on its own printed circuit board.

Integrated graphics make up the vast majority of GPUs now available on the market. The question now is, what exactly are integrated graphics, and how exactly do they function in your computer? A system that has a CPU that comes with a fully integrated GPU on its motherboard enables the system to be thinner and lighter, while also reducing the amount of power consumed and the cost of the system.

Intel® Graphics Technology is at the forefront of integrated graphics technology. This technology comprises the Intel® ArcTM graphics and the Intel® Iris® Xe graphics. Users of systems equipped with Intel® Visuals can enjoy vivid graphics while benefiting from systems that run cooler and have longer battery lives.

Dedicated GPU Graphics Processing Unit

Integrated graphics processing units (GPUs) are able to successfully operate a variety of computing applications. On the other hand, a discrete GPU, also referred to as a dedicated graphics card, is a preferable choice for applications that place a greater demand on the system’s resources and have more stringent performance requirements.

These graphics processing units (GPUs) increase computing power, but at the expense of increased energy consumption and the production of heat. In order to achieve their optimum potential, discrete GPUs typically require the use of specialised cooling.

The graphics processing units (GPUs) of today are more programmable than they have ever been, which enables a wide variety of applications that go beyond the realm of standard graphics rendering.

Where Do GPUs Fit Into the Picture?

Back in the 1990s, graphics processing units (GPUs) were utilized almost exclusively for the purpose of accelerating real-time 3D graphics applications like video games. However, as the 21st century began, computer scientists began to recognize that graphics processing units (GPUs) had the ability to address some of the most challenging computing problems in the world.

This insight paved the way for the era of general-purpose graphics processing units. The application of computer graphics technology is becoming increasingly widespread, and it is being used to solve an ever-expanding range of issues. The graphics processing units (GPUs) of today are more programmable than they have ever been, giving them the ability to speed up a wide variety of applications that go far beyond the realm of traditional graphics rendering.

GPUs for Gaming

The graphics in today’s video games are increasingly photorealistic, and the in-game settings they take place in are expansive and intricate. This has led to a rise in the amount of processing power required to play these games Increasingly sophisticated display technologies, including as 4K panels and high refresh rates, in conjunction with the proliferation of virtual reality games, are driving up the requirements placed on graphics processing. Graphics processing units (GPUs) are able to render graphics in both 2D and 3D. Games that have greater graphics performance can be played at higher resolutions, at quicker frame rates, or all of these simultaneously.

GPUs for the Editing of Videos and the Creation of Content

Long rendering times have been a cause of frustration for video editors, graphic designers, and other creative professions for many years. These long delays tied up computing resources and impeded the flow of new ideas. Rendering video and images in higher definition formats is now both faster and easier thanks to the parallel processing made possible by graphics processing units (GPUs).

GPU for use in machine learning

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are two of the most fascinating uses for GPU technology. Image recognition is one of the types of work that can tremendously benefit from the highly parallel nature of GPUs and take advantage of the extraordinary amount of computational capability that GPUs incorporate. As a result, GPUs are able to deliver incredible acceleration in these kinds of workloads. The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) in conjunction with central processing units is essential to the majority of today’s deep learning technologies.

GPU for Cryptocurrency Mining

Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency to require a proof of work (PoW) algorithm in 2009. In the beginning, all that was required to mine for bitcoins was a personal computer. As technology progressed to meet the ever-increasing demand, cryptocurrency mining became a possibility for many people to carry out on their personal computers at home. The mining process and its efficiency have steadily increased over the years as a direct result of the increased use of more advanced technology. Because graphics processing units (GPUs) are significantly more effective than central processing units (CPUs), they have been utilized in the mining process for many years.


GPU aka Graphics Processing Unit now has become far more advance than several years ago. At first, GPU was used to accelerate graphics rendering and make the picture movement smoother. Today GPU is used in many sectors including Gaming, AI, Machine learning, and Cryptocurrency mining.

ISP Full Form

ISP Full Form

ISP full form is “Internet Service Provider,” which refers to a company that facilitates the connection of consumers and businesses to the Internet. ISPs offer a variety of services to its customers, including Internet Protocol Television (IPTV), broadband, satellite, and telephone access (IPTV).

ISPs may also give software packages (such browsers), e-mail accounts, personal websites or home pages, and home pages for its customers. Internet service providers (ISPs) have the ability to not only construct websites for businesses but also to host their websites. Network access points, which are public network facilities on the Internet backbone, are what connect all of the Internet service providers (ISPs) to one another.

The proliferation of paid Internet services and applications contributed to the Internet’s quick transformation into a commercial enterprise. The occurrence of this phenomenon can be traced back to a number of other causes as well.

The emergence of the personal computer (PC) and the workstation in the early 1980s was a major influence. This development was propelled by exceptional advancements in integrated circuit technology, which in turn led to a rapid decrease in the price of computers.

The development of Ethernet and other local area networks (LANs) to link personal computers was yet another aspect that played an increasingly significant role as time went on. However, there were also other factors at play.

History of ISP

In 1984, AT&T Corporation underwent a major restructuring, and as a result, the National Science Foundation of the United States was able to take use of numerous new choices for its national level digital backbone service, which is known as NSFNET.

The United States Corporation for National Research Initiatives was granted permission in the year 1988 to carry out an experiment that involved connecting a commercial electronic mail service known as MCI Mail to the Internet.

This application established the very first connection to the Internet with a business service provider who was not also a member of the research community. After a short period of time, approval was granted to let other e-mail providers access, and simultaneously, the Internet experienced its first burst in traffic.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) was granted permission by federal legislation in 1993 to make the NSFNET backbone accessible to commercial customers. Before that point, the usage of the backbone was governed by an acceptable use policy that had been formulated and was being managed by the NSF.

According to this policy, commercial use was restricted to applications that were of service to the research community. NSF recognized that using commercially supplied network services, which were now available, would ultimately be a lot less expensive than continuing to support special purpose network services. This realization came with the availability of commercially supplied network services.

In the same year, 1993, the University of Illinois made Mosaic, a new kind of computer program that was known as a browser, widely available. Mosaic was able to run on most different kinds of computers and, thanks to its point-and-click user interface, it made it easier to access, retrieve, and display files that were located on the Internet.

Tim Berners Lee initially designed a set of access protocols and display standards for a new Internet application that would later be known as the World Wide Web while working at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

Mosaic included those protocols and standards (WWW). In 1994, Mosaic Communications Corporation, which would later become known as Netscape Communications Corporation, was established with the intention of creating a Web browser known as Netscape Navigator as well as server software for sale.

Shortly after this, the massive software company Microsoft Corporation took an interest in facilitating the use of Internet applications on personal computers. As a result, the company created the Internet Explorer web browser, which was initially modeled after Mosaic, in addition to other applications.

The growth of the Internet, which had already been expanding at a rate of one hundred percent each year as early as 1988, was sped up as a result of these newly developed commercial possibilities.

Around the late 1990s, there were around 10,000 Internet service providers (ISPs) around the world, with the United States housing more than half of them. On the other hand, the vast majority of these Internet service providers (ISPs) offered only local services and relied on connection to regional and national ISPs for wider connectivity.

At the close of the decade, consolidation started in the internet service provider industry, and many smaller and medium-sized providers merged with or were bought by larger ISPs. America Online, Inc. (AOL), one of these larger providers, had its beginnings as a dial-up information service that did not have Internet connectivity.

However, in the late 1990s, it made the transition to become the leading provider of Internet services in the world, with more than 25 million subscribers by the year 2000 and branches in Australia, Europe, South America, and Asia. In the meantime, many new state-owned internet service providers joined the market in huge national markets such as China, India, and Indonesia, and they swiftly overtook the subscriber base of any typical commercial internet service provider.

Many consumers of dial-up Internet service switched to broadband service during the beginning of the 21st century in order to take advantage of faster Internet connections. In certain regions of the United States, the entry-level broadband service that is provided by telephone and cable television companies costs the same amount as dial-up services.

Additionally, some firms offer Internet, telephone, and cable television service that is packaged together. As a direct consequence of the change, dial-up Internet service provider AOL has seen the number of users who subscribe to their service drop from roughly 27 million in the year 2002 to 2.1 million in the year 2015. It was projected that by the year 2020, over 120 million homes in the United States would have access to broadband Internet.

ISPs have been lobbying for the right to charge online content or software providers different amounts for different tiers of service because of the proliferation of services like Netflix that stream video and other large files over the internet. These differences in pricing are based on the amount of data transferred over the internet by the respective companies.

Proponents of net neutrality argue, among other things, that internet service providers should be forced to treat all broadband customers the same and not charge some customers more money for consuming more bandwidth than others (data carrying capacity).

Opponents of net neutrality worry whether cable and telephone companies would be able to afford to invest in improved security or transmission services in the event that they were unable to charge a premium for these services.

The largest Internet providers of content and software were generally in favor of net neutrality, while the ISPs were opposed to it. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the United States first issued decisions in favor of net neutrality in 2010 and 2015, however under the Trump administration in 2017, such principles were repealed.


ISP full form is Internet Service Provider. It is a corporation that offers access to the internet as well as related services such as building websites and providing hosting for virtual servers. For instance, when you connect to the Internet, the connection between your computers and the internet is via ISP.

SSID Full Form

SSID Full Form

SSID full form is Service Set Identifier. It is a wireless network name that will be required when you want to connect to the WiFi. Depending on the configuration of the wireless network whether you will need to enter the password or not. Service Set Identifier consists of 32-byte alphanumeric name. SSID can be visible or hidden (for security purposes) depending on the requirements.

SSID can consist of several Access Point (AP).

Where you will find SSID

SSID on laptop

ssid on laptop

SSID on smartphones

ssid on smartphone


IBM Full Form

IBM Full Form

IBM full form is International Business Machines. IBM is a technology company with operations in 171 countries worldwide.

HDMI Full Form Explained

HDMI Full Form Explained

HDMI full form is High Definition Multimedia Interface, a digital audio/video interface that allows for the transmission of compressed video data to compatible computers.

HDMI is an analog video and audio replacement system. HDMI implements the standards EIEA/CEA-861, defined by definition and waveform for the recording and transmission of compressed and uncompressed audio.

HDMI send video and audio signal thus you don’t need another cable for audio.

HDMI connector

HDMI has 19 pins, the connectors are male and female. We can find 3 types of connector in the market, standard, mini, and micro connector.

hdmi connectors


HDMI Versions

Version 1.1 2004 supports DVD

Version 1.2 2005 supports added one-bit audio

Version 1.3 2006 TMDS clock to 340 MHz

Version 1.4 2009 supports resolutions 4096 × 2160 at 24 Hz, 3840 × 2160 at 24, 25, and 30 Hz, and 1920 × 1080 at 120 Hz

Version 2.0 2013 bandwidth up to 18.0 Gbit/s

Version 2.1 20017 supports  4K 120 Hz and 8K 120 Hz


HDMI uses

Used by gamers to connect the game consoles to TV

Used to send audio and video signal from the laptop to monitor (monitor must have speakers to able to hear audio.

hdmi port on laptop

Where we can find HDMI port?

Digital TV


Game Console





What Is LMAO Full Form?

What Is LMAO Full Form?

LMAO full form – LMAO (Laughing My Ass Off) is an Internet slang used in chatting to describe something extremely funny. LMAO is used especially in text conversation where emotion/voice tone is not possible to be expressed. It is much easier to write LMO than to write “That really made me laugh” or that was funny.

LMAO history

Started in the early 1990 and now become standard in Internet slang.


instead of being written as LMAO people sometimes use emoticons similar to below:

lmao icon

LMAO sample

lmao sample meme

LMAO related words

LOL  = laugh out loud
ROFL = rolling on the floor laughing
Lmfao = Laughing my F*** ass off

LMAO or LOL in other languages

Thai: 555 in Thai pronounced ha, so 555 = hahaha

Danish: g for griner means laughing in Danish

Indonesian: wkwkwk, awokawokawok

WiFi Full Form Meaning & Definition

WiFi Full Form Meaning & Definition

WiFi Full Form is Wireless Fidelity. WiFi is a technology that connects devices like computers, smartphones, routers, printers, and much more wirelessly to other devices and to the Internet. Without WiFi, we must use cables to connect and this is not practical at all.

History of WiFi

Back in 1997, WiFi was released to the public with the name 802.11 and later become IEEE 802.11 which refers to the standard for wireless communications for WLAN (Wireless LAN).

When WiFi has first introduced the speed to transfer between 2 devices is 1-2 Mbps.

The first WiFi router for the home that complies with IEEE 802.11 standard was introduced in 1999.

How does WiFi work?

Wi-Fi works by using radio waves to transfer data between your wireless router and your WiFi-enabled devices. However, there are also dangers to connecting to a public Wi-Fi network, including cyber attacks, identity theft, and even physical threats.

WiFi Frequencies, speed, and standard protocol table

802.11 standard protocol keeps increasing in terms of speed and multi-user handling capability. Below is the table.

Maximum SpeedStandardFrequencyMIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)
2 Mbps802.112.4 GHzn/a
11 Mbps802.11b2.4 GHzn/a
54 Mbps802.11a5 GHzn/a
54 Mbps802.11g2.4 GHzn/a
450 Mbps802.11n2.4 or 5 GHzSingle User (SU-MIMO
866.7 Mbps802.11ac wave15 GHzSingle User (SU-MIMO)
1.73 Gbps802.11ac wave25 GHzMulti User (MU-MIMO)
2.4 Gbps802.11ax2.4 or 5GHzMulti User (MU-MIMO)

WiFi ranges

The indoor WiFi router typically can reach up to 300 feet using the built-in antenna however, this also depends on how many objects are inside the room. The more objects the less signal coverage. Outdoor Wireless routers can reach up to dozens of kilometers with a directional external antenna.

WiFi Devices

Wifi devices are in many forms they accompany our daily activities, at office and home.


Desktop computer and laptop uses WiFi to connect to the internet to send emails, get data and more, or share files and printers among colleagues.


A wireless stick USB modem usually is used by individual users. The MiFi (Mini WiFi router) is used by small groups of people usually up to 5 people.

wifi full form usb stcik modem and wifi
USB stick moden and MiFi modem


Wireless printers are used in LAN environments so users can print out their job wirelessly although using cable is at some point still more reliable.


The wireless router at home is used by family members to connect to the internet as well as share files and videos locally.


CCTV cameras can record video so we can watch the video wirelessly. Although the camera is wireless the power needs an electrical outlet. In some models, the camera uses a battery that can last days so they are truly wireless.


A smart TV has a wireless connection to the router to connect to the Internet. It is also able to receive video sent by smartphone or computer.


Smartphones is uses WiFi to connect to the Internet so the emails and data are always synced and updated. When no WiFi is available they use a data package with 3G, 4G, or 5G connection.

I hope this post about WiFi full form, meaning, and definition will answer your curiosity about this wireless technology that exists in many public places.

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