VGA Full Form Explained

VGA Full Form Explained

VGA full form is Video Graphics Adapter or Video Graphics Array. It is the name of a well-known display standard that was developed by IBM and released in 1987.

vga port male
VGA port (male)

VGA utilizes analog signals, which means it’s only capable of lower resolutions and a lesser quality display on screens.

VGA enables color display displays with a resolution of 640 by 480 pixels, a refresh rate of 60 hertz, and the ability to display 16 colors simultaneously. If the resolution is reduced all the way down to 320 by 200, 256 colors will be displayed.

vga port on laptop
VGA port (female) on laptop



CMOS Full Form

CMOS Full Form

CMOS full form is Complementary Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor. CMOS is the chip that powered by a battery to store and keep information such as time and date, and hardware settings in the computers.

CMOS checksum error

When you found your computer’s date and time always back behind every time you turn on the computer or your computer always asks to set up the configuration this indicates that the battery that powered the CMOS chip needs to be replaced. There is also a typical error message like CMOS checksum error.



What is Displayport?

What is Displayport?

A Displayport is a port on a computer that allows for the connection of an external display, such as a monitor, projector, or TV cable. DVI, HDMI, and VGA are the three display connections that are used the most frequently in modern computers.

displayport connector

VESA is the organization that developed the digital audio and video interface known as DisplayPort (abbreviated as DP). Its connections are available in two different flavors: the conventional, which is illustrated above, and the more compact Mini DisplayPort. Both types of connections are capable of sending the same messages despite having very different sizes. Connecting a display device to a computer, such as a computer monitor or projector, requires the usage of these cables.

mini display port cable
Mini Displayport
TWS Full Form In Headphones

TWS Full Form In Headphones

TWS full form is True Wireless Stereo. TWS is a technology applied in headsets that enable users to listen to music in stereo mode and move freely. TWS uses Bluetooth to connect with the smartphone.

CMS Full Form

CMS Full Form

CMS full form is Content Management System. CMS is software that organizes articles or content of your websites. By using CMS you will easily create a lot of content.

Some popular CMS are:

1. WordPress (Free)

This is the most popular CMS in the world. The software is free and open source, many parties has developed the add-on software called Plugin. Right now you are see a WordPress website, Yes I am using WordPress too.

2. Drupal (Free)

cms full form drupal

Drupal is also popular CMS that we can use for free.

3. Joomla

cms full form joomla


CMD Full Form

CMD Full Form

In Windows, CMD is an abbreviation of Command. When you type CMD in the search bar and press enter key you will see a command window. If you want to know the list of commands you can run, just type help and press enter key.

You can execute various commands by typing in the command prompt. Before Windows as popular as today, everything was executed within the command prompt.

Even when you want to run Windows you need to type win and press enter. Many commands are still powerful and there is no substitution within Windows OS.

command com

What Motherboard Model Do I Have? 4 Ways to Easily Find Out.

What Motherboard Model Do I Have – There are some ways you can identify your motherboard type, first is by using a software utility some computer model will include this in their software package.
Second is looking at your manual book and the third is by looking physically at your motherboard.

Identify using software

In Windows 10, there is a little program called System Information Utility you can access this by typing msinfo in the search button and click System Information.

what motherboard do i have windows 10
Actually, when you type msi in the search button, the System Information will show up, you can click from there.
motherboard information

As with sample laptop here the model is 2349CTO, with this information you can dig up more information about the laptop. Just type in Google and you will find more interesting information.
There are a lot of useful information, like BIOS version, system name/computer name, and others.

In Windows 7 or earlier you can access System Information by going to Start-All Programs>Accessories>System tools click Information Utility.

Using WMIC command to get motherboard model

WMIC is a set of command from Windows that can be used to retrieve some important information like motherboard model, serial number and a lot of other information.
From command prompt type wmic baseboard get product,Manufacturer,version,serialnumber

motherboard serial number lookup

Identify Motherboard model using documentation

Your computer should come with a manual guide that includes your motherboard model/information. If you cannot find the manual for some reason you can download the manual guide in PDF form from your computer’s manufacturer website.

Identify Motherboard model using physical observation

This is not as easy as above 2 methods before. You have to open the computer case, usually it printed in the motherboard clearly, but since there are many other parts inside computer casing you may need to remove that parts first to be able to see the model number.

I suggest you to not doing this if you do not really know about computer, just use System Information and documentation above.

how to check motherboard model in windows 7

The mother model above is P5G41-M LX from Asus. Again you can search that information on the internet and you will find much good information about your motherboard.

wmic baseboard get product,manufacturer,version,serialnumber
The model is GA-P67A-D3-B3 from Gigabyte.
Knowing the model of our motherboard is handy when we need to upgrade the component, look for specifications, look for the user’s manual, and more.
It is good when we ask a question about what motherboard model do I have to ourselves because we need to know the exact model for upgrading or look for specific information.
SSD Full Form and How Does It Work?

SSD Full Form and How Does It Work?

The SSD full form is “Solid State Drive.” It is a device for mass storage much like a conventional hard disk drive (HDD). It enables reading and writing data, and it keeps the data that has been stored in a permanent state even after the power is turned off. It is possible to attach it to a computer using the IDE or SATA interfaces that are standard. Flash drives and solid state disks are both names that are used to refer to SSDs.

Because it is built with floating gate transistors, also known as FGRs, to store electrical charge, solid-state drives (SSDs) are classified as non-volatile storage medium. As a result, the information is preserved even after the device is disconnected from its source of power. A single bit of information, represented by the value 1 for a charged cell and the value 0 for a cell that does not have an electric charge, is stored in each FGR of an SSD.

Hard disk drives (HDDs) are slower and noisier than solid-state drives (SSDs), which have flash memory that can be written to, moved between, and erased via electronic means. In contrast to HDDs, however, SSDs come with a higher price tag and a smaller capacity for data storage. Solid-state drives are frequently seen in high-end machines or in consumer personal computers in the capacity of supplementary storage devices.

What is SSD components?

A solid-state drive (SSD) is primarily made up of Flash Memory Chips and a Flash Controller.

SSD Uses

The use of solid-state drives (SSDs) initially began in high-performance technical fields and in PCs intended for enthusiasts, where the drives’ very quick access times and high throughput justified the devices’ more expensive price tag. However, in recent years, they have established themselves as a standard feature, and in certain common low-cost laptops and personal computers, they are even the default option.

Solid-state drives (SSDs) offer particular advantages in the following domains:


Because access times and file transfer rates are so important for businesses that operate with massive volumes of data (such programming environments or data analysis), many of these businesses rely on solid-state drives (SSDs).


Gaming computers have always pushed the limits of the technology that was available at the time, which justifies the purchase of rather pricey equipment for the purpose of improving gaming performance. This is especially true with regard to storage, as today’s blockbuster games continually read from and write to their respective files (e. g. textures, maps, levels, characters).


Because of their low power needs, solid-state drives (SSDs) contribute to longer battery life in portable electronic devices like laptops and tablets. Additionally, solid-state drives (SSDs) are resistant to shock, which lowers the risk of data loss when mobile devices are dropped.


Read and write speeds on enterprise servers necessitate the use of solid-state drives (SSDs) in order to provide adequate service to client computers.

What is SSD types and differences

When searching for a solid state drive (SSD), you are going to come across a lot of different names, such as mSATA and PCIe. The question now is, what does it all mean? The following is an overview of the information that you must know.

In order to install a solid-state drive (SSD), you will need to connect it to your computer using a particular interface. These are the common interfaces:

PCIe and NVMe solid state drives PCI Express (PCIe) is typically used to connect high-performance peripherals such as graphics cards, network cards, and other similar devices. This interface provides you with high bandwidth and low latency, making it suitable for use in situations in which you want extremely rapid communication between the solid state drive (SSD) and your central processing unit (CPU) and random access memory (RAM). This connection type is based on the Nonvolatile Memory Express standard (NVMe), which enables faster input output per second (IOPS) and even lower latency than SATA (which we’ll get to in a moment). SSDs that use this connection type are referred to as solid-state drives (SSDs). The raw throughput of NVMe can reach up to 16 GBits per second, and because it uses several parallel channels, it can run at speeds of up to 4,000 MB per second.

mSATA III, SATA III, and traditional solid-state drives (SSDs) Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) is an older interface that was built primarily for storage, with rates up to 6 GBit/s or around 600 MB per second. mSATA III, SATA III, and regular SSDs. NVME, which is a lot quicker, is gradually replacing SATA as the preferred storage medium. However, upgrading to a SATA solid-state drive (SSD) would still be beneficial for older computers or laptops that only have a hard disk drive.

There is a wide range of storage capacity available for solid-state drives (SSDs), beginning at about 32 gigabytes and going as high as five terabytes in the consumer market. (Of course, the capacity of storage that is enterprise grade is substantially higher, with prices that are commensurately higher.)

During the brief reign of netbooks (remember those?They were inexpensive, but slow, and flimsy), the well-known Asus Eee PC series made use of 1 to 4 GB of solid-state drives (SSDs) as storage, from which certain components of the operating system were run in order to facilitate quicker access. This was the first time that SSDs were used in a mainstream application. After that point, solid-state drives (SSDs) started appearing in ultrabooks and, eventually, desktop computers. The most common capacities available nowadays range between 250 and 500 gigabytes (GB), which is more than enough space to store your Windows operating system, the majority of your personal files, and the most popular programs.

What is M2 SSD?

M. 2 solid state drives (SSDs) are solid state drives (SSDs) with a tiny form factor that are utilized in internally mounted storage expansion cards. M. 2 solid-state drives (SSDs) are meant to provide high-performance storage in devices that are tiny and have power constraints, such as ultrabook laptops and tablet computers. These SSDs conform to a specification established by the computer industry. In general, they are more compact than other SSDs that are comparable in size, such as the tiny Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (mSATA).

SSDs are a type of storage media that save persistent data on solid state flash memory. SSDs are also known as solid state drives. An SSD, as opposed to a hard disk drive (HDD), does not have any moving parts that can become damaged or spin in any direction. M. 2 is the current name for what was once known as the Next Generation Form Factor, which was the previous name for the specification that defines the M. 2 SSD interface (pronounced M dot 2). M. 2 solid-state drives are helpful for people who are creating or updating a personal computer (PC) or laptop for use cases like gaming, 3D animation, video editing, or transferring huge files.

M. 2 is compatible with a wide variety of computer protocols and applications, including SATA and Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe). Products that are M. 2-compatible are not restricted to just solid-state drives either. Graphics cards and artificial intelligence accelerator cards that use the M. 2 specification can make use of the specification because it supports protocols such as Universal Serial Buses (USBs) and Wi Fi.

The SATA International Organization and the PCI Special Interest Group, which is a consortium of companies from the technology industry, are the organizations that were responsible for defining the M. 2 form factor specification.

How is M2 SSD disk work?

M. 2 modules have the ability to connect with a variety of different device classes, including Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, near field communication, and wireless wide area networks. However, M. 2 form factors are most frequently connected with solid-state drives (SSDs) for the purpose of data storage.

M. 2 SSDs may connect to a motherboard directly without the use of any cables. Instead, a special M. 2 connector slot on the motherboard is used to facilitate the direct connection of these components to the motherboard.

A M. 2 solid-state drive is compatible with both SATA and PCIe protocols for data transfer. SATA is a standard that is used to connect hard disk drives (HDDs) to computer systems and transport data between them. PCIe is a standard for a serial extension bus that is used to connect a computer to one or more devices that are considered to be peripherals.

M. 2 solid-state drives (SSDs) also support nonvolatile memory express (NVMe) devices that are based on PCIe. The speed at which data is transferred between client systems and SSDs while using a PCIe bus can be increased using NVMe. In order to boost performance and cut down on bottlenecks, NVMe support was built. In addition to this, it provides increased processing in parallel for read and write requests. Because of the way it is constructed, NVMe support can contribute up to five times more bandwidth than SATA M. 2 models, which may allow a computer to do operations like file transfers more quickly.

M. 2 solid-state drives (SSDs) can also have either a single or a double sided design. Single-sided M.2 boards are utilized in situations where there is a restricted amount of space, such as in ultra-thin laptops. Double-sided chips, on the other hand, require more physical space but can hold more information than single-sided chips.

The M.2 device features cutouts in one of its ends that serve as connectors and are referred to as module keys. M. 2 modules are rectangular. On one edge is where you’ll find the edge connector, and on the other edge you’ll find the mounting hole. The edge connection has a total of 75 available places and can accommodate up to 67 pins. Each pin can handle a maximum of 50 volts and 0.5 amps of current.




EEPROM full form is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EEPROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and a modified version of EPROM. EEPROM can be erased. electronically and reprogrammed using the same chip.

EPROM full form is Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. EPROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and can be erased using UV signals. It is used as a chip in computers to store specific digital data usually a small program.

PROM full form is Programmable Read Only Memory. PROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and can not be erased. We can only program it once and cannot be reused for another program.

ROM full form is Read Only Memory. ROM is a type of nonvolatile primary memory and can not be erased. So the factory programmed it once and cannot be reprogrammed.

EEPROM, EPROM, and PROM are types of ROM. They are nonvolatile memory which means the data still exist when you turn off the computer.

One of EEPROM’s uses is BIOS, where you can update it once the newer version is available.

EEPROM Advantages

  • Can be reprogrammed several times
  • No need to remove the chip from its’s place when needs to be reprogrammed.
  • Data is non Volatile

EEPROM Advantages

  • More expensive than PROM and EPROM
  • Data retention lifespan is shorter
  • EEPROM is slower in terms of read and write operation than RAM

Is Flash Disk another form of EEPROM?

Yes Flash disk is a special model of EEPROM. Flash memory chips have a structure that is identical to that of EEPROM, and they use the same standard PC voltages for erasing and reprogramming. Additionally, the initial step is to delete a complete block of bytes.

When erasing a whole block of FGTs, flash memory relies on a single ordinary MOS transistor to do the job. The vast majority of EEPROMs are comprised of one MOS transistor for every eight FGTs. While the MOS transistor gets rid of the charge, the charge is held by the FGT.

These days, flash memory modules have the capacity to store vast amounts of data—on the order of gigabytes and even more—making them ideal for use in computers and cameras. This data may be completely static or only partially static. In contrast, conventional EEPROM memory chips are typically used on circuit boards to store only little quantities of data or computer instructions. These chips are not capable of reading or writing data.

HDD Full Form

HDD Full Form

HDD full form is Hard Disk Drive. Sometimes called a hard drive, hard disk, or even HD.

What is Hard Disk Drive?

A hard disk drive (HDD) is a type of data storage device that is housed within the computer. Inside of it are disks that spin, and these disks store data via magnetic fields. An arm on the hard disk drive (HDD) has a number of “heads,” which are actually transducers that read and write data on the disk. It operates in a manner analogous to that of a turntable record player, complete with an LP record (the hard disk) and a needle that is attached to an arm (transducers). In order to access various data, the arm moves over the surface of the disk, moving the heads with it.

Hard disk drives (HDDs) are known as a legacy technology because they have been around for significantly longer than solid-state drives (SSDs). In general, they have a cheaper cost and are more practical for data that does not need to be viewed frequently, such as backups of images, videos, or business files. This type of data does not need to be accessed frequently and so does not require as much space. They can be obtained in two different standard form factors. 2. 5 inches, which is a common screen size for laptops, and 3. 5 inches (desktop computers).

How Do Hard Disk Drive Work?

The most fundamental kind of hard drives are those that are made up of numerous disk platters. A disk platter is a circular disk that can be made of aluminum, glass, or ceramic and is positioned around a spindle inside of an enclosed chamber. A motor that is attached to the spindle is responsible for giving rotation to the platter. Additionally contained within the chamber are the read/write heads, which use a magnetic head to magnetically record information both to and from the tracks located on the platters. In addition, each disk has a very thin magnetic coating applied on it.

Up to 15,000 revolutions per minute can be achieved by the motor while the platters are spinning. A second motor is responsible for controlling the position of the read and write heads, which are responsible for magnetically recording and reading information from each platter as the platters spin.

Why Is A Hard Disk Needed by A Computer?

The installation of operating systems, programs, and extra storage devices, as well as the saving of documents, all require the use of storage devices such as hard disks. Users of computers would not be able to save programs to their machines, save files or documents, or store them in their computers if they did not have devices like HDDs that can retain data even after they have been turned off. Because of this, each and every computer needs to have at least one storage device that can keep data indefinitely for as long as it is required.

What Is The Capacity Of A Hard Disk?

Some of the most common storage drive capacities include the following:

Currently, the highest capacity HDD is 20 TB. However, an HDD actually has less space than advertised, as the operating system, file system structures and some data redundancy procedures use a portion of that space.

Form Factor and Hard Drive Components

The spindle, the disk platter, the actuator, the actuator arm, and the read/write head are the components that make up the hard disk drive. The term “hard disk” really refers to the set of stacked disks that make up the section of the hard disk drive (HDD) that is charged electromagnetically and stores and allows access to data on that surface. However, the term “hard disk” can also be used to refer to the entire unit.

The term “HDD form factor” refers to the physical size of the data storage device, also known as its geometry. The length, breadth, and height of HDD form factors, as well as the position and orientation of the host interface connector, are all governed by a set of industry standards. HDD form factors also adhere to these criteria. Having a form factor that is a recognized industry standard helps to establish a level of compatibility between various types of computer devices.

2. 5 inches and 3. 5 inches are the most popular sizes for hard disk drives (HDDs) found in enterprise systems. These sizes are also known as small form factor (SFF) and big form factor (LFF). The sizes of 2. 5 inches and 3. 5 inches are approximately the diameter of the platter that is housed within the drive enclosures.

There are other form factors, but by 2009, manufacturers had stopped developing devices with 1.35 inches, 1 inches, and 0.85 inches as their form factors. Because of its decreasing cost, flash has rendered these other form factors nearly obsolete. In addition to this, it is essential to keep in mind that although the sizes are given in inches, the actual dimensions are provided in millimeters.

The hard disk drive (HDD) format is supported by a significant number of solid-state drives (SSDs). The SATA or serial attached SCSI (SAS) interface is typically utilized by SSDs that are designed to fit into the same slots as hard disk drives (HDDs) in order to transport data to and from the host computing system.

Hard Drive Failures

There is a wide variety of causes that can lead to hard disk failure. Failures, on the other hand, can typically be broken down into the following:

Hard Drive Development

Hard disk drives that make use of shingled magnetic recording (SMR) technology were made available by Seagate Technology in the year 2013. Instead of arranging the magnetic tracks on a hard disk such that they are parallel to one another, SMR stacks them on top of one another on each disk. This results in a significantly higher storage density. It is called “shingled” because the tracks overlap in a manner that is analogous to how shingles on a roof do.

In 2012, HGST was the company that made public the first helium-filled hard disk drive. Helium is less dense, cooler, and lighter than air. It also consumes less power than regular hard disk drives, enhances drive density, and improves performance. In 2016, Seagate stated that it would be releasing its own own 10 TB helium hard disk.

Drive manufacturer Western Digital introduced two hard disk drives (HDD) with a capacity of 20 TB in 2021. These were the Ultrastar DC HC560 and the WD Gold HDD Enterprise Class SATA HDD. The greatest hard drive capacity that can be purchased now is 20 terabytes. Both of these hard disk drives have a form factor of 3.5 inches but are best suited for distinct kinds of applications. The Ultrastar DC HC560 is designed for use by cloud storage providers in addition to servers used in businesses, security systems, and network attached storage devices. The WD Gold hard disk drive is tailored to meet the needs of large enterprises that manage demanding application workloads.

HDD advantages

  • When compared to other types of data storage devices, hard disk drives (HDDs) are more reasonably priced.
  • The storage base capacity of HDDs is significantly higher.
  • The memory found in HDDs is non-volatile.
  • The lifespan of HDDs is significantly higher than SSD.

HDD Disadvantages

  • There are mechanical parts that keep moving
  • The hard disk is broken when the disk surface scratches.
  • Emitting noise because the hard disk is spinning.
  • More electricity is required than SSD
  • Form factors are bigger than SSD
  • Emitting heat
  • Slower access speed than SSD


There is a lot of data that can be stored on a hard disk drive, and it can read and write data much more quickly than DVDs but slower than SSD. The storage capacity is easy to be expanded. However when a hard disk crash your data can be lost forever, thus you must have a backup so you can restore it to the new harddrive.

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