what is computer

What Is Computer?

What is computer – This article provides an overview of the basic components of a computer system. You will learn what is a computer definition, how the computer work, basic parts of computer, the advantages and disadvantages of computer, history of computer, and many more.

What is a Computer Definition?

A computer is a machine that performs processes, calculations, and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program.

Data can be input, processed, and output.

Computers can store data for later use inappropriate storage devices, and retrieve whenever it is necessary.

A modern computer is an electronic device used for a variety of purposes. From web browsing to writing documents, editing videos, creating applications, playing video games, and much more.

A computer system is a collection of hardware and software that enables an individual or organization to complete a task or achieve a goal.

What is Computer Full Form?

“Computer” is not an acronym, it is a word derived from the word “compute”. You can’t just “compute” anything. You need a computer.

In simple words, you can say that a computer is an electronic device that is used for fast calculation.

According to others, COMPUTER means something entirely different: common operating system purposefully used for technological and educational research.

This is a myth because it doesn’t make any sense, and even if it did, computing devices were invented long before computers.

How does a Computer Work?

Computers don’t emulate the human brain. Instead, they run programs that process data sequentially, while data moves constantly from input to memory to the device’s processor.

Neuromorphic computers, on the other hand, are more efficient than current computers, they are also more similar to the structure of the human brain and they are able to perform complex calculations very quickly.

The operation of a computer can be broken down into four stages:

Input is the data that is provided before it is processed. It is generated by the computer’s mouse, keyboard, microphone, and any other external sensors that are present. The data that is entered into the computer is stored in the computer’s storage.

The hard drive is used for storing data for lengthy periods of time and in large quantities, while the Random Access Memory (RAM) is utilized temporarily to store the data set for quick processing (RAM).

Processing: Processing is the step that transforms the incoming data into the final output. The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, of the computer can be thought of as its “brain.” It is in charge of carrying out the instructions that have been given to it and conducting mathematical operations on the data that has been input.

Output is the end outcome of any data processing that has been done. It might be anything, including still photographs, moving pictures, audio recordings, or even the words that you type on a keyboard. If you like, rather than receiving the output straight through your device, you can get it through a printer or a projector instead.

Basic Parts of Computer System

1. Motherboard

The term “motherboard” refers to the circuit board that all of the components of a computer use to communicate with one another.

Consider the motherboard to be the adhesive that binds everything else in place; this is its primary function.

An integrated chipset, also known as a built-in chipset, is located on the motherboard. This chipset houses both the video card and the central processing unit.

Input/output devices such as a keyboard, mouse, and speakers should be hooked into this port.

2. CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Because of its direct connector connection to the motherboard and its ability to communicate with all of the computer’s other components, the central processing unit (CPU) is frequently referred to as the “brain” of a computer.

What it does is translate each line of code that you type into assembly language, which is a language that the computer’s processor is able to comprehend. This occurs regardless of whether you are using Python, Java, or C++ as your programming language of choice. It retrieves the instructions, decodes them, and then puts them into action.

And this is where the central processing unit (CPU) comes into play; the CPU is responsible for taking care of all the processes that a computer manages.

3. GPU (Graphics Procession Unit)

It is not uncommon to hear players become obsessed with the upcoming release of a new graphics card. This is because graphic cards make it possible for computers to generate high-end pictures, similar to those that can be found in the wide variety of video games.

Good graphics cards aren’t just useful for playing video games, though; they’re also helpful for people whose trade depends on visuals for its execution, such as 3D modelers who use software that requires a lot of resources.

What it does: Because graphics cards frequently interface directly with the display monitor, purchasing a graphics card that costs $1,000 but does not have a high-end monitor connected to it is not going to be very useful.

4. RAM (Random Access Memory)

Exactly what it is: Data that pertains to programs and processes that are accessed frequently is stored in RAM, which is also referred to as volatile memory. (The fact that it is wiped out whenever the computer is restarted is what gives it the name “volatile memory.”)

RAM’s primary function is to speed up the launch and shutdown of software applications and video games.

5. Storage (Harddisk or SSD)

All computers require a location in which they may store their data. Hard Disk Drives (HDD) or Solid State Drives (SSD) are the storage media of choice in today’s computers (SSD).

What it does is store data onto a physical disk, which is how hard disk drives (HDDs) are constructed. A mechanical arm is used to read the disk’s data. (Hard disk drives are currently becoming less common as time goes on, despite the fact that they are less expensive than SSDs.)

SSDs, which are similar to SIM cards, do not include any moving parts and are far quicker than hard drives. This is because there is no time wasted waiting for a mechanical arm to find data on a specific physical place on the disk.

Benefits of Using Computer

The use of computers has become quite important in today’s society. The use of computers has an effect on almost every facet of our lives. Despite the fact that there are some drawbacks associated with utilizing a computer, we believe that the benefits much outweigh the negatives. If you are on the fence about whether or not to purchase a computer for your child, perhaps the benefits outlined below will help sway your choice in the positive direction.

Boost the efficiency of your work.

The use of computers can make you more productive, and if you have a solid understanding of the software that runs on them, you can enhance your productivity even further across the board. For instance, if you have a fundamental understanding of how to use a word processor, you will be able to produce, save, edit, publish, and share written materials such as letters and documents. With the technology that were available at the time, none of these jobs could be completed, or they could only be done very slowly.

Puts you in contact with the Internet.

The full capability of a computer may be accessed once it is connected to the Internet. Once you are connected, the choices and available alternatives you have in terms of the information at your disposal are virtually endless. A computer that is linked to the Internet is required for access to many of the benefits that are outlined on this page.

Can store enormous amounts of data and significantly cut down on waste

The quantity of information that can be stored on and retrieved by computers is truly staggering. For instance, if it has sufficient storage capacity, a computer or other device, such as an eBook reader, is capable of storing hundreds or even thousands of volumes. Digitally storing items such as books, documents, videos, images, and songs enables you to more easily search for and share the information you require across several devices, which saves time. This eradicates the requirement for the use of paper in the production of analog versions of the media.

Facilitates the classification, organization, and searching of information.

A computer has the ability to make more effective use of the information it has saved than any other technology. In our last illustration, we mentioned that there is the capacity to store thousands of volumes. After being uploaded onto a computer, those books can be quickly organized into groups, arranged in alphabetical order, and searched to help you locate exactly what you’re looking for in a matter of seconds. It would take a human being many months, if not years, to search through one thousand volumes in order to identify the specific content.

Acquire a deeper comprehension of the facts.

You can also have a better grasp of data and big data through the use of computers. One example of a database that a company might have is one that contains all of the products that it has previously sold. They are able to swiftly discover what sells well at what period of the year, when to mark products up or down, and what items are not selling by using the data they have collected. The fact that the company has access to this kind of information provides them with a competitive advantage over their rivals as well as a greater understanding of their own customers.

Helps you maintain your connection

Through the use of e-mail and other forms of social networking, computers make it easier to maintain relationships with friends and family who live at a distance. Through online discussion groups, live chat, and voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services like Skype, you can also interact with millions of people who have the same interests as you. Connecting with people from all over the world is not only fun but also a fantastic method to get to know people you would never have the chance to talk to otherwise.

Assist you in gaining knowledge and maintaining your awareness.

When it comes to the effects that computers have on our neighborhood, being linked to the Internet is among the most significant of those effects. It is an instructional tool that teaches you practically anything that piques your curiosity and provides solutions to almost any question. You can also access worldwide news in order to stay current on all of the most recent news, weather, and stories that are taking place around the world. You could acquire new skills by reading articles on websites or watching movies on YouTube. You may also enroll in online classes that teach you about any topic that you would study in a traditional classroom setting.

Making money online using computer

A personal computer that is linked to the internet opens up a wide variety of possibilities for generating income for its user. To illustrate, opening and operating an online store requires significantly less financial investment than a traditional retail location. Additionally, if your store or product is available online, it is exposed to a global audience, and you have the potential to sell to anyone in the world.

There are more benefits that you can think of when using a computer instead of manual process.

What are Advantage of Computer

The benefits of using a computer include:

Multitasking Multitasking

Multitasking One of the primary benefits of using a computer is the ability to perform multiple tasks at once. A person is capable of performing numerous tasks and operations at the same time, as well as calculating numerical problems in a few of seconds. A single second is enough time for a computer to do millions or perhaps trillions of tasks.


A computer is much more than just a calculating tool these days. The computer has become an indispensable tool in modern society. One of the most significant benefits of computers is their remarkable speed, which enables humans to do their work in a matter of seconds rather than minutes.

Cost saving in storage space

Regarding the quantity of knowledge, the answer is in the price of the coffee. A person can save massive amounts of data while only spending the price of a coffee. The most significant benefit, which will result in cost savings, is the centralized database for the storage of information.


One of the most fundamental benefits of using a computer is that it can not only conduct computations, but it can also do it accurately.


Because the computer is capable of doing the work so much more quickly, the degree of productivity immediately doubles itself.

Saving Time

Reduces the amount of work that needs to be done — Because information is frequently accessed by more than one individual, there is often a need for work to be duplicated.


Reliability is achieved by computers because they are able to carry out the same type of task again without making errors due to exhaustion or boredom, both of which are prevalent human traits.


The personal computer has a memory that is built right in, and it’s capable of storing an enormous quantity of information. Additionally, you have the option of storing data in supplementary storage devices.

What Are Disadvantages of Computer

Computers have the following drawbacks:

Attacks using viruses and hacking software

A virus might be a worm, while hacking is simply gaining unauthorized access to a computer for the goal of committing a crime. The virus may spread to another system if the user opened an infected email attachment, looked at an advertisement on an infected website, or used a portable device such as a USB drive.
Crimes Committed Using Computers and the Internet Cybercrime, often known as online crime, refers to any criminal activity that involves the use of computers and the internet. The terms “cyberstalking” and “online fraud” are examples of crimes that can be committed while using the internet.

Reduction in the number of employment opportunities

Because the previous generation wasn’t acclimated to computers or didn’t have the knowledge to utilize them, they had a difficult time adjusting when computers became widespread in the workplace.
Computers tend to come with a hefty price tag. Even the most widely available low-cost computers are still out of reach financially for the average citizen in South Africa. because computers give humans more power.

Distractions and disruptions

If you’ve ever spent hours at a time watching movies on YouTube or surfing the web, then you know how distracting computers can be! due to the fact that they offer a great deal of entertainment.

Electronic Trash

Causes an increase in trash and has a negative effect on the environment because of the rapid rate at which computers and other electronic devices are replaced All of the outdated devices that are discarded have a significant negative effect on the environment.

Features of Computer System

The following characteristics can be found on the computer:

The computer is a fast machine

The amount of data that can be calculated by computers is truly staggering.

A computer is capable of performing millions of calculations in a short amount of time, whereas a regular person would need a lot of time to complete the same amount of work. A computer can perform the same amount of work extremely effectively in a very short amount of time.

Accurate Capabilities

Computers are both highly quick and very accurate in their calculations.

The computation that was done by the computer is correct one hundred percent of the time, and the mistake was quite little.

If the human input is accurate, the computer will perform its tasks with a precision of one hundred percent.

Storage for big data

One of the most important capabilities of a computer is that it can store a significant amount of information.

We are able to store a wide variety of data kinds within the computer, including photographs, videos, text, music, files, and many others.

A computer has a much greater capacity for storing information than a person does.


Computers never fatigued like humans.

The computer is capable of working nonstop without getting weary, making mistakes, or getting bored, and it can do so without pausing.

Computers are able to carry out one or more jobs in a continuous manner with the same level of precision and speed.


The computer is an extremely adaptable piece of equipment, and it is quite simple to use.

The computer is a piece of equipment that is put to use in a variety of settings to address a broad spectrum of issues.

There are places where it is used for calculation, and there are other places where it is utilized for gaming.


Because of their precision and vast storage capacities, computers are extremely dependable pieces of machinery.

The purpose of computers is to facilitate the completion of routine tasks.


An example of an automatic machine is a computer. A computer is capable of carrying out all of its operations on its own. This indicates that once the computer begins working on a task, there is no need for any more involvement from a person.

What are Limitations of Computer?

No common sense

One of the most significant shortcomings of computer systems is that they cannot do this. In spite of how effective, quick, and trustworthy computer systems may be, there is no way to build logic into them, therefore they do not have any common sense. This is because there is no algorithm that is foolproof enough to do so. Because their operation is dependent on the stored program(s), computers are devoid of any kind of common sense.

Don’t have IQ

One of the shortcomings of computer systems is that they have no IQ at all. This is another one of their limitations (IQ). They are unable to perceive and think of the actions to perform in a particular circumstance unless that situation is already programmed into them. They are unable to see and think of the actions to conduct in a particular situation. Computers may be instructed to carry out any and all tasks, regardless of how menial or trivial they may be.

Lack of ability to make decisions

The process of making a decision is a challenging endeavor that requires a person to have information, knowledge, intelligence, wisdom, and the capacity to judge. The computer system is not capable of making decisions on its own since it does not include all of the components that are necessary for decision-making.

They are capable of being programmed to make such decisions, which are concerned solely with following procedures. Because it lacks the wisdom and judgment capabilities necessary to make a decision, a computer will not make a choice if it has not been designed to handle a certain decision scenario. On the other hand, human beings have this extremely potent ability of decision-making at their disposal.

Generations of Computer

The Development of Computers Over Five Generations

First generation, between the years 1940 and 1950 the computer is on Vacuum tube based

Second generation, during the years 1950 and 1960 the computer start using transistors replacing Vacuum tube

Third generation, about the years 1960–1970 based on integrated circuit technology

Fourth generation people born between 1970 and nowadays Powered by a microprocessor

Fifth generation Both now and in the foreseeable future Artificial intelligence based

What is Classification of Computer?


A PC is a tiny, affordable personal computer. PCs use microprocessor technology that fits a CPU on one chip. Businesses utilize PCs for word processing, bookkeeping, desktop publishing, spreadsheet, and database administration. At home, PCs are mostly used for games and Internet.

Although PCs are single-user systems, they’re usually networked. High-end Macintosh and PC models offer the same computational power and graphics as low-end Sun, HP, and Dell workstations.


Workstations are used for engineering (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other activities requiring moderate computing power and high-quality graphics.

Workstations have a large, high-resolution graphics screen, lots of RAM, built-in network capabilities, and a GUI. Most workstations have a disk drive, while diskless workstations don’t.

UNIX and Windows NT are workstation OSes. Workstations are single-user computers like PCs but are usually joined together to form a local area network.

Mini computers

These computers came out in the mid-1960s and were significantly cheaper than mainframes. They were meant for control, instrumentation, human contact, and communication switching, not calculating and record keeping.

In the 1960s, to describe smaller computers made possible by transistors, core memory, basic instruction sets, and cheaper peripherals like the Teletype Model 33 ASR.

Compared to the massive mainframes that could fill a room, they were called “MINICOMPUTERS” (e.g., laptops, PCs, etc.).

Mainframe computers

These are commonly called “big iron” and are used by large organizations for bulk data processing such as stats, census data processing, transaction processing, and are widely used as servers as these systems have a higher processing capability than other classes of computers. Most of these mainframe architectures were established in the 1960s, but research and development has continued and the mainframes of today are far more powerful.

IBM z Series, System z9, System z10 servers.

Super Computer

Supercomputers are the fastest. A supercomputer is a high-performance computer. FLOPS, not MIPS, measure a supercomputer’s performance. All 500 fastest supercomputers use Linux. China, the US, the EU, Taiwan, and Japan are conducting additional research to construct faster, more advanced supercomputers. Supercomputers are employed in quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling, and physical simulations. both Supercomputers have always been important in cryptanalysis.

Param, jaguar, roadrunner.


Components of Computer System

Even though there are a number of other elements, these three are the ones that are principally accountable for the operation of a computer. They have to cooperate perfectly with one another because only that will allow the system as a whole to run smoothly. Because of this, we can even refer to them as the fundamental components of a computer system.

Input component

These components enable users enter data and commands. Data includes numbers, words, activities, and commands. Input devices feed computer commands and data. CPUs process the input and provide output.

A laptop’s keyboard inserts numbers and characters. Even a mouse can enter commands and directions. Barcode readers, MICR, OCR, etc. are further examples.

Touch-screens are input devices. Touching these displays enters commands. Smartphones and ATMs use these input devices.


After receiving data and directions from users, a computer system must now process the information in accordance with the specified instructions. In this instance, it must rely on a component known as the central processing unit. The CPU also uses the following three elements:

a) Memory Module

When a user submits information via input devices, the computer system stores the information in its memory unit. This data will persist until it is processed by other CPU components. The memory unit employs a set of pre-programmed instructions to transfer this information to other CPU components.

b) Unit of Arithmetic and Logic

This portion of the CPU executes mathematical operations. It performs elementary mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. In addition, it can execute logical operations such as data comparison.

c) Control Module

This component is the foundation of computers. It is in charge of coordinating tasks between all computer system components. The control unit takes data from input units and, depending on its nature, transmits it to processing units. Additionally, it communicates the processed data to output units for users.

Output component

The output unit is the third and final component of a computer system. After data has been processed, it is translated into a format that humans can comprehend. After conversion, output units present this information to users. Output devices include monitors, displays, printers, and speakers. Therefore, output units repeat the data formatted by the computer for the advantage of the user.

Uses of Computer System

Today, computers are utilized in all fields. In the 21st century, we rely solely on computers. Today, computers are an integral part of our lives.

Please read 22 Uses Of Laptop In Business And Daily Life To Get A Better Results for more details computer system applications.

The applications of computers in numerous fields are listed below.

Utilizations of the Computer in Education

Computer Applications in Health and Medicine

Utilizations of the Computer in Business

Computer Applications in the Entertainment Industry

Utilizations of the computer in Science

Utilizations of the Computer in Government

Utilizations of the Computer in Sports

Utilizations of the Computer in Hospitals

Utilizations of the computer in the Banking industry

Utilizations of the computer in Marketing

Computer Applications in the Military

Computer applications at the Railway Station

History of Computer

First Computer

The ENIAC, created by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania, was the first significant computer. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) utilized a 10-digit decimal word as opposed to the binary ones utilized by earlier automated calculators and computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, employing over 18,000. More than 167 square meters (about 1800 square feet) of floor space was required to store these vacuum tubes and the gear required to keep them cool. It contained punched-card input and output, as well as one multiplier, one divider-square rooter, and twenty adders utilising decimal “ring counters,” which served as both adders and quick-access (0.0002 second) read-write register storage.

Instructions comprising a program were embodied in the various units of ENIAC, which were connected to establish a path for the flow of computations through the computer. These connections were required to be recreated for each unique issue, along with the presetting of function tables and switches. This “wire-your-own” instruction technique was inconvenient, and ENIAC could only be considered programmable with a license; yet, it was effective at handling the programs for which it was designed. From 1946 through 1955, ENIAC was widely regarded as the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC), and it was utilized commercially. In 1971, however, a debate arose regarding the patentability of ENIAC’s fundamental digital concepts, as it was claimed that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had utilized the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube system he constructed in the 1930s while attending Iowa State College. In 1973, the court sided with the corporation using Atanasoff’s claim, and Atanasoff gained the recognition he deserved.

Advancement of Hardware

In the 1950s, two machines would be built that would advance the field of computing and spark the beginning of the computer revolution. The transistor was the first of these two devices. In 1947, William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories invented the transistor, which was destined to replace vacuum tubes in computers, radios, and other electronic devices.

Vaccum Tubes
In 1906, American physicist Lee De Forest invented the vacuum tube, which was subsequently utilized in virtually all computers and calculators. The vacuum tube, which is roughly the size of a human thumb, operated by utilizing massive quantities of power to heat a filament inside the tube until it turned bright red. By heating this filament, electrons were released into the tube, which could be controlled by other elements within the tube. The initial device created by De Forest was a triode, which could regulate the flow of electrons to the positively charged plate within the tube. The absence of an electron current to the plate would then indicate a zero, while the presence of a modest but detectable current would represent a one.

Vacuum tubes were extremely inefficient, required a large amount of space, and required frequent replacement. In the 1940s and 1950s, computers contained 18,000 tubes, and holding all these tubes and cooling the rooms heated by 18,000 tubes was expensive. The transistor promised to address all of these problems and it did so. However, transistors have their own problems. Similar to other electronic components, transistors were required to be soldered together. The greater the complexity of the circuits, the more intricate and numerous the connections between the individual transistors, and the greater the possibility of erroneous wiring.

This problem was also solved in 1958 by Jack St. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments. He created the initial integrated circuit or chip. A chip is a collection of small transistors that are joined together during the manufacturing process. Thus, the requirement to solder together a large number of transistors was almost eliminated, leaving just the need to connect other electronic components. In addition to reducing space, the machine’s speed was boosted as a result of the decreased distance the electrons had to travel.

Mainframes to PCs

During the 1960s, big mainframe computers were increasingly prevalent in large enterprises, the US military, and the space program. IBM became the undisputed market leader in the sale of these massive, costly, error-prone, and extremely difficult to operate machines.
In the early 1970s, there was a true explosion of personal computers, beginning with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak showing the first Apple II at the First West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. The Apple II included an integrated BASIC programming language, color graphics, and 4100 character memory at a price of $1,298. A typical audio cassette recorder is capable of storing programs and data. Wozniak and Jobs received 300 orders for the Apple II by the end of the fair, after which Apple took off.

1977 also saw the introduction of the TRS-80. This was a Tandy Radio Shack-manufactured home computer. The TRS-80 Model II’s second iteration included a 64,000-character memory and a disk drive for storing programs and data. Only Apple and TRS had machines with disk drives at the time. Personal computer programs flourished after the introduction of the disk drive, as floppy disks were the most convenient publishing media for software distribution.

IBM, which had previously produced mainframes and minicomputers for medium to big organizations, decided it had to get involved and began developing the Acorn, eventually renamed the IBM Personal Computer. The PC was the first computer developed for the home market with a modular design that allowed for easy addition of new components. Surprisingly, the majority of the components came from outside IBM, as developing it using IBM components would have been too expensive for the home computer market. The PC was debuted with a 16,000-character memory, an IBM electric typewriter keyboard, and a tape cassette player connector for $1,265.

Apple and IBM have released new models by 1984. The original Macintosh was the first computer to include a graphical user interface (GUI) and a mouse. The GUI increased the machine’s appeal to home computer users because it was simple to operate. Sales of the Macintosh skyrocketed like never before. IBM produced the 286-AT, which with applications such as Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet, and Microsoft Word, quickly became the preferred business computer.

This brings us to approximately ten years ago. Currently, individuals have access to personal graphics workstations and potent home PCs. A typical home computer is significantly more powerful than ENIAC by several orders of magnitude. The computer revolution is the most rapidly expanding technology in human history.

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