File sometimes corrupted when downloaded, this process below make sure that the firmware file is intact.
To change IP address on your computer follow this steps:
Before we can answer this we need to know what is port forwarding, how do they work and what is the purpose.
Port forwarding or port mapping is a technique to redirect a communication port request from one port/ip address to another port/ip address.
The port that need port forwarding usually will reside in internal network and the request will be handled by network gateway.
The Purpose of Port Forwarding
By implementing port forwarding it will enable remote computers from the internet to connect to a specific computer in the internal network (LAN).
Is Port forwarding Safe?
It depends on of what services/devices you apply the port forwarding. If you apply it on game consoles like Xbox and Playstation then it is safe.
If you apply port forwarding in a CCTV or their DVR (Digital Video Recording) then there is a risk someone can access your CCTV and DVR. You can minimize the risk by put a good password on them.
Or if you port forwarding on a computer running windows 7, windows 8 or windows 10, make sure you turn on the firewall.
Another Picture of is port forwarding safe:
ARP (Addrеѕѕ Resolution Protocol іѕ the ѕtаndаrd mеthоd for fіndіng a hоѕt’ѕ hardware аddrеѕѕ whеn оnlу its nеtwоrk lауеr address is knоwn. In other wоrd, in IPv4 аnd Ethеrnеt network еnvіrоnmеnt, Wіndоwѕ operating system uѕеѕ ARP tо trаnѕlаtе IP addresses tо Ethеrnеt MAC аddrеѕѕеѕ.
Twо соmрutеrѕ іn an office (Cоmрutеr 1 аnd Computer 2) аrе connected to each оthеr іn a local area nеtwоrk bу Ethеrnеt саblеѕ and nеtwоrk switches, wіth nо іntеrvеnіng gateways оr routers. Cоmрutеr 1 hаѕ a расkеt tо ѕеnd tо Computer 2. Thrоugh DNS, it dеtеrmіnеѕ that Computer 2 hаѕ thе IP аddrеѕѕ 192.168.0.55.
Tо ѕеnd the mеѕѕаgе, іt аlѕо rеԛuіrеѕ Cоmрutеr 2’s MAC address. First, Cоmрutеr 1 uѕеѕ a сасhеd ARP tаblе tо lооk uр 192.168.0.55 for аnу еxіѕtіng rесоrdѕ оf Cоmрutеr 2’s MAC аddrеѕѕ (00:eb:24:b2:05:ac). If thе MAC address іѕ fоund, іt sends аn Ethеrnеt frame wіth dеѕtіnаtіоn address 00:еb:24:b2:05:ас, containing the IP расkеt onto thе lіnk. If thе cache did nоt produce a rеѕult for 192.168.0.55, Cоmрutеr 1 has to send a brоаdсаѕt ARP request mеѕѕаgе (dеѕtіnаtіоn FF:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF MAC аddrеѕѕ), whісh is ассерtеd bу аll соmрutеrѕ оn thе local network, rеԛuеѕtіng аn аnѕwеr fоr 192.168.0.55.
Cоmрutеr 2 rеѕроndѕ with аn ARP response message containing іtѕ MAC and IP аddrеѕѕеѕ. As раrt оf fіеldіng thе request, Cоmрutеr 2 mау іnѕеrt аn еntrу for Cоmрutеr 1 іntо іtѕ ARP tаblе fоr future use.
Cоmрutеr 1 receives аnd сасhеѕ thе rеѕроnѕе information in іtѕ ARP table аnd can nоw ѕеnd thе расkеt.
However, Microsoft Wіndоwѕ ARP cache will occasionally bесоmе соrruрt аnd need to be сlеаrеd and deleted ѕо thаt thе cache can bе refreshed.
If you’re encountering рrоblеm соnnесtіng to Intеrnеt whеrе соnnесtіоnѕ tо websites оr wеb раgеѕ wіll time out or fаіl, and unаblе to ѕurf оr brоwѕе thе Internet раgеѕ, thе еrrоr mау because аlѕо оf ARP cache corruption, other than TCP/IP corruption оr Wіnѕосk error.
Tо confirm thаt іt’ѕ іndееd аn ARP іѕѕuе, try to ping bоth thе lоорbасk аddrеѕѕ (127.0.0.1) аnd thе lосаl соmрutеr’ѕ IP address. Thеn trу tо аnу оthеr IP аddrеѕѕеѕ ѕuсh аѕ thоѕе оf Gооglе.соm оr Yahoo.com. If you can ping tо local IP address аnd lоорbасk аddrеѕѕ, but nоt any other IP addresses, then thіѕ іѕ the tурісаl symptom оf ARP сасhе fаіlurе.
Use the NetShell (nеtѕh) command tо clear, delete оr refresh thе Addrеѕѕ Resolution Prоtосоl (ARP) cache bу fоllоwіng thе fоllоwіng ѕtерѕ.
Clісk on Start buttоn.
Click оn Run соmmаnd аnd type Cmd into thе Run tеxt bоx, аnd thеn рrеѕѕ Enter. For Windows Vіѕtа оr lаtеr OS, type Cmd іn Stаrt Search, аnd thеn рrеѕѕ Ctrl-Shift-Enter kеуbоаrd ѕhоrtсut tо force Administrator рrіvіlеgеѕ. Entеr Admіnіѕtrаtоr uѕеr ID аnd раѕѕwоrd and allow аnу permission rеԛuеѕt when prompted.
In the Command Prоmрt window, tуре thе fоllоwіng command thеn рrеѕѕ Entеr.
nеtѕh interface ір dеlеtе аrрсасhе
The command wоrkѕ іn all Windows vеrѕіоnѕ.
When we start learning computer network science, the first thing we learn is usually TCP / IP. TCP / IP can be analogized like language. When humans exchange information, humans will speak in a language that can be understood by the speaker and listener.
Likewise, the computer or host on a network. In order for communication and information exchange to be well established, the same language is needed. Although the network host brands are different, the host can still communicate with other hosts because it uses the same communication standard, namely TCP / IP.
The internet protocol was first designed in the 1980s. However, in the 1990s where the internet was increasingly popular and there were more and more hosts, protocols began to emerge that could only be used by certain circles, or protocols made by certain manufacturers that were not necessarily compatible with other protocols from other factories as well.
Finally, the International Standards Organization (ISO) body made standardization of the protocol that is currently known as the Open System Interconnection protocol model or abbreviated OSI. The OSI model is a reference and basic concept of the theory of how a protocol works. In its development TCP / IP is used as the de-facto standard.
When ISO (International Standards Organization) standardizes the protocol, a standard reference model is created that contains the protocol’s work. The reference model is then called the Open System Interconnection (OSI). Based on the X.200 recommendation document, this OSI standard has 7 layers. Each of these layers has a different function definition.
Layer 7: Application Layer
This is the layer where the end user interface interacts with applications that work using network functionality, regulates how the application works using network resources, to then give a message when an error occurs. Some services and protocols that are at this layer such as HTTP, FTP, SMTP, etc.
Layer 6: Presentation Layer
This layer works by translating the data format that the application wishes to transmit over the network, into a format that can be transmitted by the network. At this layer also the data will be encrypted or described.
Layer 5: Session Layer
The session layer will define how connections can be made, maintained, or destroyed. At this layer, there are the Name Recognition, NFS & SMB protocols.
Layer 4: Transport Layer
This layer will do the data breakdown into data packages and provide sequential numbers on the data packages so that they can be rearranged when they reach the destination. In addition, at this layer, will determine the protocol that will be used to transmit data, for example the TCP protocol. This protocol will send data packets, while also ensuring that the packet is received successfully (acknowledgment), and retransmitting packages that are lost or damaged in the middle of the road.
Layer 3: Network Layer
The network layer will create headers for packets that contain IP information, both the IP sending data and the destination IP data. Under certain conditions, this layer will also do routing through internetworking using routers and layer-3 switches
Layer 2: Data-link Layer
The function is to determine how the data bits are grouped into a format called a frame. In addition, at this level error correction, flow control, hardware addressing (such as Media Access Control Address (MAC Address)) occur, and determine how network devices such as hubs, bridges, repeaters, and layer 2 switches operate. The IEEE 802 specification, divides this level into two child levels, namely the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer.
Layer 1: Physical Layer
The Physcal Layer works by defining network transmission media, signaling methods, bit synchronization, network architecture (such as Ethernet or Token Ring), network topology and cabling. In addition, this level also defines how the Network Interface Card (NIC) can interact with cable or radio media.
The process of sending data through each of these layers can be analogous to when we sent a letter. The contents of the letter are the data we will send (layer 7 -> 5). Then according to the shipping standard, we enter the contents of the letter into an envelope (layer – 4). So that our mail can be sent, we need to add the address where the letter will be sent, also who sent the letter (layer – 3). Furthermore, we submit the letter to the expedition, and the expedition will send our letter earlier (layer – 2 & 1).
Read: How To Change IP address
In the previous review we discussed how the process of a data is transmitted, now we will try to unpack a data. What is the contents of all the data so that the data can be transmitted. when we analogize sending data on the internet like sending a POS, we can say the data is the contents of the letter, then the packet header is envelopes, stamps, addresses, and other equipment. This header package provides some additional information. If we examine a data packet that is transmitted using ipv4, we can see the contents of the data package as shown below:
Stores information on the IP version used (IPv4 or IPv6).
IHL (IP Header Leght): Information on the overall length of the data packet header. The minimum IP header length is 20 bits, and the maximum length is 24 bits.
Is a field in the IPv4 header that has a length of 8 bits and is used to indicate the type of Quality of Service (QoS) used by the datagram concerned to be delivered to internetwork routers. This TOS implementation is usually when we do HIT limitation on proxy web proxy or VOIP service.
16 Bit Total Length: This 16-bit entry provides information on the size of the entire packet (fragment) including the header and data. Information is displayed in bytes format
16 Bit Identification, Fragment Offset Flag / Length: When the ip packet is running on the internet, this packet may pass through several routers that cannot handle the packet size, for example the Maximum transmission unit (MTU) value is smaller than the IP datagram size, then the packet will be broken or fragmented into smaller packages which will then be rearranged afterwards. This parameter will be used for fragmentation and rearrangement.
It is possible that an IP packet is running aimlessly on the Internet network. Examples of cases such as the existence of routing errors or routing loops. To prevent this packet from circling on the internet forever, this TTL value will be reduced every time the data packet passes through the router. When the TTL value of a data packet has expired or has a value of 0, then the packet will be dropped or discarded.
Contains what protocol information is used to transmit data.
16 Bit Header Checksum: the value information is calculated based on the IP header content calculation. Used to determine whether there is an error when transmitting data.
32 Bit Source IP Address: 32 bits of IP packet data source information.
32 Bit Destination IP Address: 32 bits of IP information the data packet is addressed to.
Options (if any):
This parameter is rarely used, has varying lengths, from 0 to multiples of 32 bits. This parameter can be used to store a value for security options, Record Route, Time Stamp, etc.
It contains data transmitted.
From the packet header information above, data can be sent from one host to another.
What is My IP Address?
This is one of the questions you need to answer when you call technical support for help. As a layman, you might don’t know the answer because this is a technical question, instead you asking back with a question “How to find my IP address?”
Below are 2 ways to find your IP address in Windows 10
1. Via Taskbar
On Windows 10, click WIFI icon
2. Via command prompt
You can check IP address via command prompt from any version of winodws, Windows XP, Windows 95, Windows NT, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10, Windows server.
On Windows 10, type cmd on search bar and a black windows will open. Type ipconfig and press Enter key, it will show you the IP address.
3. Via online services
Class B 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255
Class C 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255