What is Cache Memory?

What is Cache Memory?

Cache memory is a special type of memory that is used to store recently used information. This memory is fast and efficient, so it is usually used to speed up the performance of a computer system.

If you are using a personal computer (PC), it is very likely that you have some form of cache memory. There are three main types of cache memory: the processor cache, the video cache and the main memory.

A processor cache is a small section of RAM used by a microprocessor for temporary storage of data and instructions.

Video cache is similar to the processor cache, but it stores information about images that are being displayed on the screen.

The main memory is a type of RAM that holds the bulk of the computer’s programs and data. The cache memory is used to store recently used information in order to make the program or the data accessible as quickly as possible.

What is the purpose of cache memory?

Cache memory is implemented to speed up the process of computing. In the CPU sub-system instead of fetching data directly from RAM, it fetches data required from the cache memory that acted as a buffer between CPU and RAM.

Cache memory in Harddisk also serves faster data required by RAM, instead of reading directly from Harddisk that needs to spin the disk, RAM will read from cache memory first.

What is Computer Memory?

What is Computer Memory?

Computer memory is a term used to describe the physical storage devices used to store data on a computer. The most common type of computer memory is RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory.

RAM is a volatile memory, which means it is temporary and loses its information when you turn off your computer. It is used to store programs that are being executed.

ROM is another form of computer memory that is used in computers. The first personal computers did not have RAM, but they had a permanent memory device called a PROM. A PROM was used to store instructions for the computer. The computer would run the program when it turned on.

A harddisk and SSD is a non volatile memory. It will keep the data even when your computer is turned off. Non-volatile memory is used to store the information about your files that are already saved on your computer.

11 Examples of Utility Softwares To Help You Stay Productive

11 Examples of Utility Softwares To Help You Stay Productive

In this post, we give you information about examples of utility software available for Windows and Mac. We cover some of the most popular utility software for anti-virus, file management, backup utilities, Storage Device Management Utilities, Data Synchronization Tools, Disk Clean-Up Tool
Debugger, Screen Savers, Clipboard Managers, System Monitors, System Profilers, and Registry Cleaners.

What is utility software?

Utility software is software that has a specific function and helps users solve a specific problem. Utility software helps computers use their full potential.

The purpose of utility software

Utility software includes programs like anti-virus and anti-spyware programs. These programs do many useful things such as checking your computer for viruses and spyware and fixing problems.

Internal and External Utility Software

Internal utility software usually comes with the operating system that you are using. For example, there is utility software for Microsoft Windows that makes your computer faster. That’s an internal utility.

But there is also external utility software that people can use on their computers to make them work better. Like, you can buy a utility software for Photoshop that lets you work faster.

Utility software Examples and their function

1. Antivirus Utility Software

Antivirus is created to protect your computer from viruses, malware, and other malicious code. A virus is a piece of code that can replicate itself and thus will use the computer’s resources and make the system halted or even corrupted.
Malware does not replicate itself but does the unwanted process on behalf of our computer.

When the computer is connected to a network, a virus will spread via the network and infect the other computer which doesn’t have an antivirus utility program.

For Examples:

Mc Afee Antivirus, Norton Antivirus, Kaspersky, AVG Antivirus, and many more.

2. File Management Utilities

File management files will help you in organizing files, especially when you have a lot of files, you will need this software. With file management utility software you can find the file you are looking for quickly. Can copy or overwrite to another computer via a network or within the same computer.

It also can change the file attribute and other managing files stuff.

  • Dokmee
  • ProofHub
  • Google Drive
  • Alfresco
  • Microsoft Sharepoint
  • M-Files
  • OnlyOffice
  • DocuWare
  • LogicalDoc
  • Hightail

3. Backup Files Utilities

Backup utility software will make sure you have copies of your valuable data.  The backup program will copy the whole or partial data when they are changed or are new.


4. Storage Device Management Utilities

A storage device management utility allows a user to manage his storage devices from a central point. It can also monitor them. If they don’t work properly, the storage device manager will inform you of this problem. You can use it to check the space left of the storage device, to manage its partitions.


5. Data Synchronization Tools

For example, you are at home, and you have a lot of data stored on your computer (for example, e-mails, photos, text documents). If you are away from home for a week, you would like all the data stored on your computer to be automatically synchronized with your smartphone or tablet. This process is called data synchronization.


6. Disk Clean-Up Tool

Disk Clean-up tool is a computer program that helps you free up disk space. The program removes unwanted files from your hard drive.

  • CCleaner.
  • CleanMyMac X.
  • Treesize.
  • CleanMyPC.

7. Screen Savers

When the computer has been idle for a predetermined period of time, a screensaver (also known as a screen saver) will either blank the display screen or fill it with moving images or patterns. On CRT and plasma computer monitors, screensavers were designed to prevent phosphor burn-in (as the name depicted).

Despite the fact that most modern monitors are immune to this problem, artists and gamers can still make use of it by displaying various moving things on their computer screens. They can make your PC look awesome when it’s not in use.

For Examples:

8. Clipboard Managers

A clipboard manager software allows you to copy things like websites, files, pictures and even text from one place on your computer to another. It helps you manage all of these items by making them easily available for later use.

9. System Monitors

Monitoring a certain condition of a sub-system of the computer is a daunting task if you don’t use a program. People will get tires but the program will not. When they found a certain condition that meets your requirements it will alert you and do a certain task that you program before.

  • Zabbix
  • Spiceworks Network Monitor
  • Nagios
  • OpManager by ManageEngine
  • WhatsUp Gold.
  • Cacti
  • Icinga
  • OpenNMS

10. System Profilers

It lets you see what’s running on your system by collecting performance data and analyzing them. It helps you to find out how your computer works and diagnose problems. It also can be used for optimization.

11. Registry Cleaners

Registry cleaners are computer programs that clean up your computer registry. A registry is a database that contains information about every file on your computer, such as what program it was used for, what version of that program you have installed, when you last opened it, etc. Registry cleaners remove errors, problems, and corruption, which is necessary for your computer to run smoothly.

Advanced SystemCare
Auslogics Registry Cleaner
Wise Registry Cleaner

Utility software license types

Some utility software uses licenses as:

Trialware, which means you can use it for a certain period of time. During the trial period, the software usually has limited features, but others give full features.

Freeware, you don’t need to pay for a license, make a donation, or limit how many times you download or open the program. It is, nevertheless, constrictive in several respects.

Adware, often known as ad-supported software, generates cash for its creators by automatically displaying advertisements on your computer.

Related posts:

What Is Computer Hardware?

What Is Computer?

6 Parts of A Computer You Should Know22

Uses Of Laptop In Business And Daily Life To Get A Better Results


9 Types of Web Browser You Need To Know

Types of web browser – Before we talk about various types of web browsers that we can use to surf the Internet, we need to know some terms that are used in this article:

What is Web Browser?

In order to access the internet, we need a web browser, which is installed on the computer. With a web browser such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Microsoft Edge (the successor to Internet Explorer), you can get online and browse the Internet to find information.

Ideally, a website should be compatible with as wide a range of browsers as possible when it is being developed. In order to be available to the widest possible audience.

Web browser features like bookmarking and tabbed browsing make it easier for users to get around on the web and engage with the content on individual pages. The ability to debug websites, examine network data, and examine their source code is now included in many browsers. Spell check, malware prevention, and content screening can all be added via plug-ins.

What does the URL stand for?

A URL (uniform resource location) is a unique identifier for each website. In the same way that you have a physical address, you have an IP address on the internet. When you input a URL in the browser’s address box and press Enter, the browser takes you to the page corresponding to the URL you typed in. URL examples: https://yunarwinardi.com https://www.google.com

Cookies and Cache

Cookies, which make it easier to navigate the internet, are enabled by default in most browsers. In order to save time, the login fields on some websites automatically fill with the user’s login information. This is due to the browser’s cookies.

Login information, screen names, and passwords are all stored in cookies, which are little text files. As a result, cookies must be removed on a regular basis in order to maintain account security and prevent data theft. In order to prevent cookies from being kept on the browser, you would need to surf in private mode.

When typing in a website’s URL, many users may notice that it takes a few extra seconds before the page appears. If the internet connection is slow, it may take longer to complete the task. The files on the server are read by the browser. These files are saved to the device’s hard drive. Caching is the name given to this procedure. By using caching, you can view web pages saved locally on your computer more quickly.

The History of Web Browsers and WWW

In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee created WORLD WIDE WEB, the first web browser. After two years, the Lynx browser was released, a text-based browser. It had a number of drawbacks, such as the inability to display graphics.

Moving on, the first widely used browser, called Mosaic, was released in 1993. It wasn’t until 1994 that Netscape Navigator was released, after a few tweaks. In 1995, Microsoft released Internet Explorer, which was the first browser to support JavaScript.

In 2003, Apple released its own browser, Safari, designed only for Macs. Mozilla released Firefox in late 2004. In 2008, Google Chrome, the most popular browser on the Internet, was created. Later in 2011, Opera Mini, a mobile-optimized version of the browser, was made available. The Microsoft Edge browser was released to the public in 2015.

Search engines vs. web browsers

Many people (including my sister-in-law) think that web browsers is search engines, this is not correct. Because they can be used as search engines, but actually web browsers are not Search Engines.

How do distinguish between Search Engine and Web Browser?

Search Engine
When you try to find an answer on the Internet, you type it into the address bar, that is the search engine, not the browser. Your address bar automatically searches the web for you if it doesn’t recognize an address or domain.

Web browsers?
A viewable web page is generated by web browsers by rendering HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) and XML code. The code for a web page is downloaded from a web server by the browser, which then interprets and displays the code.

What you see on your social media is actually thousands of lines of code that have been translated by web browser. Here is the list of 9 web browsers that are available for you to choose from:

1. Microsoft Edge

When you upgrade to Windows 10, you’ll get a new web browser called Microsoft Edge. It is now the default web browser, taking the place of Microsoft’s IE. In addition to being open-source, it supports the most recent web standards.
The integrated PDF reader in Microsoft Edge is one of the most useful. You don’t need to install a separate PDF reader to view and annotate PDF files. However, Microsoft Edge isn’t ideal. It doesn’t have as many extensions as other browsers, and it doesn’t support several older web standards.

2. Google Chrome

Google created this browser, which was first made available as a beta on September 2nd, 2008 for Windows users. Chrome has a global market share of more than 50 percent, making it one of the most popular web browsers in use today.
By clicking this link, you may get the most recent version of this browser Install Google Chrome on your computer. https://www.google.com/chrome/

3. Firefox, a web browser powered by Mozilla

Mozilla has spawned a new browser called Firefox. Despite its relatively recent debut in 2004, it has quickly risen to the status of the Internet’s second-most popular browser. Click here to get the most recent version of this browser. https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/new/

4. Safari by Apple Inc.

Apple Inc.’s Safari is a web browser included with the Mac OS X operating system. In January 2003, a public beta version of the program was made available. The most recent technologies, including XHTML and CSS2, are well-supported in Safari.
By clicking this link, you may get the most recent version of this browser Take a look at Safari
Safari lets you know if your activities are being monitored. However, the browser is closed source, so proceed with caution. We advise you to thoroughly consider your options before making a decision. https://support.apple.com/downloads/safari

5. Brave Web Browser

Brave’s privacy scheme has recently come under fire for reasons linked to bitcoin and blockchain.
While other browsers use the Chromium platform, Brave’s built-in ad and tracker blocking, privacy-focused design, and the opportunity to earn Basic Attention Tokens (BAT) by viewing advertising set it apart from the competition. https://brave.com/

6. Konqueror

Open Source web browser Konqueror supports Java applets, JavaScript, CSS 1, CSS 2, and Netscape plug-ins and is HTML 4. 01 compliant. There are basic cut/copy/paste actions and comprehensive remote and local network file browsing capabilities available in this file manager that also serves as a file manager for local UNIX filesystems.
Click here to get the most recent version of this browser. Take a look at Konqueror

7. Tor

If the exit node issue is just a blip on the radar, we say go for it.
Tor is a free, open-source anonymous web browser that protects your online privacy and freedom from network traffic analysis.
Onion routing is a technique that uses layered layers to encrypt your communication over and over again. The browser then distributes your data to a smattering of machines located all around the world at random. When you utilize the Tor network, websites you visit will only see the IP address of the Tor server, not your own. This makes it far more difficult for someone to trace what you do online. https://www.torproject.org/

8. Lynx

Unix, VMS, and other platforms running cursor-addressable character cell terminals or emulators are supported by Lynx, a full-featured World Wide Web browser
Click here to get the most recent version of this browser. Lynx can be downloaded here.

9. Opera

Opera web browser offers fast, secure, and free ads on both Desktop and mobile. The chat capability is built-in with the browser. Opera also offers a free VPN connection when browsing the Internet. https://www.opera.com/

What is the best web browser for me?

It all comes down to personal preference. However, you might find this comparison table of various web browsers useful in making a decision.

I am mostly using Chrome because it has lots of extensions that are useful for my work however sometimes I use Edge to make sure the website I am working on has the correct look.

You use your preferred web browser listed above. The look and functionality of each browser vary. Add-ons are available for most browsers, allowing you to tailor your browsing experience.

You can use a browser extension to prevent advertising from appearing on online pages.
In addition to ad blockers and private browsing modes, several web browsers have incognito or private browsing modes.

This prevents the browser from keeping information about the websites you visit, thereby protecting your privacy. For instance, when you dismiss the Safari window in private browsing mode, all cookies, website data, and history are erased from the computer.

A private browsing option in Firefox removes all cookies and browsing history when the window is closed. Consider using a browser with tracking protection or do not track options if you desire a more private online experience (like Firefox, Brave, or Tor). When you use do not track, websites are told not to track your online activities.

It’s safest when it’s hidden from view

You can’t afford to let your online security go in the face of the numerous dangers on the internet. That said, a virtual private network (VPN) is the best approach to ensure that your internet activity isn’t monitored. Whatever browser you’re using, a virtual private network (VPN) is always a good idea. So, if you’re wanting to improve your online security.

What Is Computer Network and Why Every Business Need Them?

What Is Computer Network and Why Every Business Need Them?

What is computer network – A computer network ( sometimes called a Network) is a system that connects a number of different computers that are not connected to one another in order to share information (data) and resources. Users are able to converse with greater ease thanks to the seamless integration of computers and several other gadgets. A group of two or more computers that are connected to one another over a network is known as a computer network. Either wired or wireless media can be utilized to successfully create a connection to a network.

Network Topology

Network topology is a structure of a network that can be logical or physical. Some Network Topology that are commonly used:

Bus Topology

A bus topology network is a computer network that connects computers or servers, printers, and other network devices to a single cable. This type of network is now rarely used.

Ring Topology

This type of topology is referred to as a ring topology due to the fact that one computer is connected to another, with the last computer being connected to the first computer. precisely two neighbors are assigned to each device. The data moves in only one direction around the ring as it is transmitted.

Star Topology

The devices in the star topology do not have direct connections to one another but instead must route data through a device called a hub or a switch.

In this topology, every computer or network device is connected via a hub or switch. Direct connection between the devices is not possible. As an exchange, the controller or hub is used. This topology is what we are using today.

Mesh Topology

Mesh topology has a dedicated connection to every other device. This link is one that exclusively transmits data between the two devices it connects.

A fully-connected mesh network uses all the available channels, and requires n *(n 1./2 physical connections.

How does a computer network work

The foundation of any network is the switch. Switches are used to connect multiple computers and printers to the network. A switch has an uplink port and a downlink port. If you plug a cable into a computer, it will go through the uplink port and into the switch. When you plug a cable into a printer, it will go through the downlink port and out of the switch.

Computer Networking Devices

In a computer network there are several devices or components that made up the network, they are:

Network Interface Card

The network interface card (NIC) is a card that plugs into a computer’s motherboard and provides an interface to the computer’s network. NIC can be wired or wireless.

Network Cable

Network cables are used to connect computers or networks. The cable can be Fiber Optic or Ethernet cables. Fiber optic can reach a distance area (several kilometers), can send data faster, is very small, expensive, and is usually used to connect 2 separate buildings. The Ethernet cable looks like a telephone cable but is bigger because it has eight cables inside it. The maximum length between computers or hub/switch is 100 meters.


Every computer that has NIC (ethernet adapter) is connected via a hub. Hub can have several ports that can be used by a station, server, or printer. Hub share their bandwidth with the computers that connect to them.


A swith is an advanced version of a hub, it gives better performance when transmitting data among computers.


The router is responsible for routing packets between different networks. It determines the best route to take based on the destination and the routing table.

Access Point

You can imagine the access point as a wireless hub or switch. Wireless computers are connected to an access point instead of to a hub.

Network printers

Are printers that are connected to a network, rather than being plugged into a computer. This allows you to print documents, photos, and other files from anywhere on your network.


A computer system that provides services for users, in a company it can be a file server that provides files to every networked users or a database server that processes data and make the output to the users.

Different Types of computer networks

There are many different kinds of networks, each serving a distinct function even though their overarching goals are comparable. The following are some broad categories that are used to classify modern networks.

Local-area network (LAN)

A local area network (LAN) is a collection of devices connected to a single network, such as a home or office network. It’s a group of computers, printers, and other network-connected devices that work together to share resources and information. A LAN can be large or small. For example, a LAN in a large company with hundreds of employees and thousands of devices would be called a corporate network.

Wide-area network (WAN)

A WAN is a type of network that connects computers and networks in different locations. These locations may be at different offices, cities, states, or even countries. A WAN is made up of several different types of connections such as fiber optic lines, satellite communications, DSL, cable, or wireless. WANs connect the LANs of an organization so that users can share information between each other.


Intranet is a network that uses public network such as the Internet as a medium to connect to other private networks in a different location. Instead of building their own infrastructure which is very expensive to connect to their other private network located in different areas even countries, they use the Internet to communicate. When using the Internet, they create tunnel and encryption so the data only available tho their network.


The internet is the largest network computer that enables computer networks of businesses, schools, governments, and other organizations from all over the world to connect with each other and share information. As a result, there is a complex network of cables, computers, servers, data centers, routers, satellites, and wireless towers that are required to transmit data around the world.

The Internet is an enormous network that connects other networks and serves as an infrastructure for networking. It creates a network that connects millions of computers all over the world, making it possible for any computer to communicate with any other computer on the network as long as both computers are connected to the Internet. The Internet is a worldwide network of computers that are linked together and communicate and share information through the use of a defined set of protocols known as the Internet Protocol Suite.

Service-provider network

Service providers are the people who build, own, and operate the Internet. They can provide a service that connects two different computers together. A service provider can be a company like AT&T or Verizon, or it can be an individual that provides a service to many different people.

Why do People Need Computer Network

Without well-designed computer networks, no sector of the economy—be it education, retail, finance, technology, the government, or healthcare—can continue to function normally. When an organization grows in size, the network inevitably becomes more complicated. Before beginning the laborious process of developing and installing a computer network, there are a few primary goals that absolutely need to be thought through.

Goals to Achieve When Implementing a Computer Network

1. Resource sharing

It’s not enough to just share information; you need to make it easily accessible and sharable. If you can do that, you can achieve success.

When you are using data to make business decisions, you need to have access to reliable data. This means you need a system that can accurately record data and provide this information to the people who need it.

2. Resource availability & reliability

This is a key point for companies that provide services in areas where the internet is not always reliable. If you need to be able to access a resource at any time, it is important that the resource is available in multiple places. This also applies to companies that offer goods or services that are dependent on the internet.

3. Performance management

The amount of work required by a corporation only increases as it expands. The performance of the system as a whole is improved as well as the capacity to accommodate further expansion when one or more processors are added to the network. The lookup and fetch times of data can be greatly improved by saving it in databases with a good architecture.

4. Cost savings

Large mainframe computers are expensive, but adding processors to them at strategic points can improve their performance and save money in the long run. The best time to do this is when they are new. By adding processors as needed, you can use the existing hardware for longer, and save money in the process.

5. Increased storage capacity

Employees that work with large amounts of data might benefit tremendously from the use of network-connected storage devices. For instance, each individual member of the data science team does not require their own separate data warehouses for the extremely large number of records that they process. The work can be done in an even more effective manner with the help of centralized repositories. The ability to increase storage capacity is essential in today’s world, as organizations are witnessing record quantities of client data coming into their systems.

6. Streamlined collaboration & communication

The day-to-day operations of a firm are profoundly influenced by the networks that are in place. Employees are able to more effectively share files, view one other’s work, synchronize their calendars, and communicate their thoughts with one another. Internal messaging platforms like Slack, which allow for unrestricted flow of information and discourse, are utilized by all businesses operating in the current day. Despite this, emails are still the preferred method of professional communication with customers, business partners, and suppliers.

7. Minimize errors

Networks help to eliminate errors by ensuring that all parties involved obtain information from a single source, even if they are viewing it from separate locations. This is done even if they are accessing it from many locations. The data that has been backed up ensures consistency and continuity. There isn’t going to be much of a hassle involved in making standardized versions of customer and staff guides accessible to a big number of individuals.

What Is Computer Hardware?

What Is Computer Hardware?

Computer hardware is everything that makes up a computer. It’s all the physical parts of a computer that make it work. From the processor to the memory, it’s all part of the hardware.

A computing device is composed of hardware and software. Hardware includes things like the motherboard, memory, hard drive, processor, etc. Software includes programs, operating systems, applications, and so on. The two work together to make the device do what it was designed to do.

Internal hardware component in a computer

A computer is composed of many different types of internal hardware, including the CPU, RAM, hard drive, motherboard, video card, etc.

This is a screenshot of what a typical internal computer hardware components looks like.

External hardware component in a computer

External hardware components are those items that are often externally connected to the computer to control either input or output functions. These hardware devices are designed to either provide instructions to the software (input) or render results from its execution (output).

Computer Hardware vs Software

The term hardware means tangible components of a computer that are physical, such as its screen, keyboard, hard drive, speakers, etc. Software refers to the programs and functions of a computer that allow the hardware to be used.

The software is the intangible component of the gadget that enables the user to communicate with the hardware and direct it to carry out a variety of tasks according to their instructions. The following are some examples of computer software:

Because they are not actual physical keyboards, virtual keyboards on mobile devices and laptop computers are also regarded to be forms of software.

Because the software and hardware of a computer are dependent on one another to produce useful output, the software must be designed to function correctly with the hardware in order for the computer to be useful.

How Does Hardware Communicate with Software?

Hardware communicates with software using drivers. Drivers are programs that allow the hardware to talk to the operating system. The drivers are stored on the hard drive and the operating system reads them into memory so they can be executed.

Can Hardware run without software?

Hardware that does not require software are very basic devices. For example, a basic pair of headphones require no software or instructions because they’re only passing the audio from a computer to your ears. If you have a laptop or a smartphone, then you can use the headphone jack on those devices.

What is Hardware upgrade?

If you’re wondering what a hardware upgrade is, then you should know that it’s any new hardware that’s better than what it replaces or additional hardware that improves performance. The most common examples of hardware upgrades are RAM upgrades, CPU upgrades, hard drives, and GPUs.

Hardware Virtualization

Hardware virtualization is the separation of hardware resources from the software that utilizes them. Simply described, hardware virtualization is when software is used to construct virtual representations of hardware instead of employing physical, tangible hardware components for some computing function.

Hardware virtualization, also known as platform or server virtualization, is done by host software on a specific hardware platform. It requires a hypervisor, a virtual machine manager that builds virtual representations of internal hardware. This allows the hardware resources of a single physical machine to be shared and utilised more efficiently by several operating systems and applications.

In cloud computing, hardware virtualization is frequently related with infrastructure as a service (IaaS), a delivery paradigm that provides physical resources over a high-speed Internet connection. A cloud service provider (CSP) such as Amazon Web Services or Microsoft Azure hosts all the hardware components that are normally present in an on-premises data center, such as servers, storage and networking infrastructure, as well as the software that enables virtualization.

What is hardware as a service?

In addition to purchasing computer hardware and periodically replacing or upgrading it, individuals and corporations can also lease physical and virtual hardware from a service provider. The supplier is then responsible for maintaining the hardware, including all of its physical components and software, up to date.

This model is called as HaaS.

The greatest benefit of HaaS is that it minimizes the expenses of hardware purchases and maintenance, allowing businesses to switch from a capital expense budget to a typically less expensive operational expense budget. Also, because the majority of HaaS products are based on a pay-as-you-go basis, it is easier for businesses to control expenses while still having access to the hardware they require for operational and business continuity.

HaaS involves the installation of physical components belonging to a managed service provider (MSP) at a customer’s location. A service level agreement (SLA) outlines each party’s responsibilities.

The customer may pay a monthly price for utilizing the MSP’s hardware, or its use may be included in the fee structure for installing, monitoring, and maintaining the hardware. If the hardware malfunctions or becomes obsolete, the MSP is responsible for repairing or replacing it.

Depending on the requirements of the SLA, decommissioning hardware may involve erasing proprietary data, physically destroying hard drives, and confirming that obsolete equipment has been discarded in accordance with the law.

What Is Computer Software?

What Is Computer Software?

What is software – software is a set of written instructions that enables a computer to do a certain task. The user can utilize the software to control the functionality of the computer’s hardware. In other words, software allows a computer to execute activities that the hardware alone cannot. For instance, when a computer is turned on, it cannot accomplish any task unless it has been given specific instructions.

The instructions may be saved as a computer program. In other words, a program is a series of instructions needed to complete a task. The computer is capable of executing the program in order to complete the task.


How does software work?

Software is a method for instructing computers to carry out particular activities. For instance, software enables you to play games, listen to music, send and receive e-mail, and watch movies on your computer. Applications software can be used for a variety of purposes, including business, education, and recreation. System software constitutes the basis of an operating system. It allows the computer’s hardware to cooperate.


Hardware versus software

Software and hardware are interdependent; neither can be utilized independently. A book offers a helpful analogy. The hardware of a book is the pages and ink. The program consists of the words, sentences, paragraphs, and overall meaning. A computer without software is like to a book with empty pages. A computer requires software to be helpful, just as a book requires words to be relevant.

While both are essential, there are significant distinctions between the two:

Computer Hardware

Hardware refers to the computer’s physical components. Computer Hardware consists of all tangible components of a computer. These are the basic electronic components that comprise a computer. Processor, Memory Devices, Monitor, Printer, Keyboard, Mouse, and Central Processing Unit are examples of computer hardware.

Computer Software

Software is a collection of instructions, procedures, and documentation that enables a computer system to accomplish various tasks. Computer Software is also a code that is run by a computer’s CPU. The code may be written at the machine level or for an operating system. Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Google Chrome, Photoshop, MySQL, etc., are examples of software.

Software Classification

Not all software is created equal, there are much software with different functions and target users we can classify them into several categories as below:

Application program

Application software consists of numerous applications that execute specialized tasks for end users, such as report drafting and website navigation. Additionally, applications can do tasks for other programs. Applications on a computer cannot operate independently. They cannot function without the operating system and other system software programs.

These desktop apps are installed on a user’s computer and utilize its memory to perform tasks. They occupy space on the hard disk and do not require an internet connection to function. However, desktop apps must conform to the specifications of the hardware devices on which they run.

Web programs, on the other hand, require only an internet connection to function. They operate independently of the hardware and system software. Consequently, users can access online apps using web browser-equipped devices. Since the application’s functional components reside on the server, users can launch the application from Windows, Mac, Linux, or any other operating system.

Developing software

Programming software, which is classified as system software, is not utilized by the end user. It is utilized by programmers who write code. Programming software is used to create, test, and debug other software, including application and system software. These applications function as a type of translator. It transforms programming languages like as Python and C++ into machine language code, which a computer can understand.

Driver application

Also categorized as a sort of system software, driver software operates and controls devices and peripherals connected to a computer, allowing the device to execute its specified function. Displays, sound cards, printers, mouse, and hard drives are hardware devices that require a driver to connect to a system.

Drivers enable software systems to interact using a standard language, as there are different sorts of devices. By default, an operating system includes drivers for a mouse, keyboard, and printer, therefore third-party installations are unnecessary. The driver may need to be installed externally on advanced devices. If different operating systems, such as Linux, Windows, or Mac, are utilized, drivers must be maintained separately for each. These are examples of drivers:

Device drivers can execute in kernel mode or user mode. Operating a driver in user mode enhances system stability, as a badly built user mode driver cannot cause a system crash by overwriting kernel memory. In contrast, kernel mode is preferred for networking with minimal latency.


Computer software

System software is located between hardware and application software. Users do not engage directly with system software, which runs in the background and manages the computer’s fundamental functions. This program coordinates the hardware and software of a system so that users can execute high-level application software to conduct specified tasks. When a computer system boots up, system software executes and continues to operate as long as the system is on.


Planning and execution

The software development lifecycle is a framework used by project managers to outline the phases and responsibilities associated with designing software. The initial phases of the design lifecycle consist of planning the endeavor, understanding the needs of the people who will use the software, and developing precise requirements. The objective of the design phase, which follows the first requirements study, is to specify how to meet user requirements.

The following step is implementation, when the development phase is concluded, followed by software testing. The maintenance phase include all tasks necessary to maintain the system operational.

The software design includes a description of the software’s to-be-implemented structure, data models, interfaces between system components, and potentially the techniques the software engineer will employ.

The software design procedure converts customer requirements into a format that computer programmers can utilize to code and implement applications. The software engineers construct the software design in an iterative manner, adding detail and modifying the design as they progress.


Maintaining software quality

The quality of software is determined by whether or not it meets both its functional and nonfunctional requirements.

Functional requirements define the capabilities of the software. They comprise technical information, data manipulation and processing, calculations, and any other function that indicates what an application intends to achieve.

Nonfunctional requirements, sometimes known as quality qualities, dictate how a system should function. Portability, disaster recovery, security, privacy, and usability are examples of non-functional needs.

Software testing identifies and resolves technical faults in the software source code and evaluates the product’s overall usability, performance, security, and compatibility to verify it satisfies the specifications.


Software Quality Maintenance:

To maintain the quality of software once it has been deployed, developers must continuously adjust it to suit new client requests and address problems identified by users. This involves enhancing functionality, resolving bugs, and modifying the software’s source code to prevent problems. The length of time a product remains on the market is contingent on developers’ ability to meet these maintenance requirements.


Modern software engineering

DevOps is an organizational methodology that combines software development and IT operations teams. It encourages collaboration and communication between the two groups. Additionally, the word refers to the usage of iterative software development techniques that employ automation and programmable infrastructure. Get the complete picture with our comprehensive guide to DevOps.


SaaS vs. on-premise

Software can be delivered in a variety of methods, with cloud computing and on-premises deployment being the most popular.

Cloud computing is the transmission of computer services over the internet, as opposed to relying on local servers or personal devices to manage programs. Servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence are examples of computing services. These web-accessible services are transferred outside of an organization’s firewall. Software as a Service (SaaS) is a cloud computing service paradigm that enables remote access to software, its functionality, and subsequent upgrades via an Application Service Provider (ASP).

On-premises software is implemented within the physical boundaries of an enterprise, typically in the data center. IT personnel have physical access to the data and direct control over the configuration, management, and security of the computer infrastructure and data by installing and executing software on hardware situated within the company’s premises.

Typically, companies that supply SaaS sell their services using a subscription model in which clients pay a specific amount each week, month, or year in exchange for the service. Using SaaS, businesses just pay for the resources they consume. In contrast, organizations who choose for on-premise are responsible for the ongoing server hardware expenditures, power usage, and space requirements.

A corporation with on-premises software keeps greater security control. They are accountable for establishing user access regulations, implementing firewalls, antivirus software, and security upgrades, and preventing cyberattacks. Companies with appropriate IT support should not worry about a third party managing their confidential information. On-premises servers can render a corporation exposed to security breaches if they are mishandled.

With cloud computing, the cloud provider manages the data. Large cloud service companies have strong security teams and stringent protocols. With all the sensitive data they store, however, they give hackers with an enticing target. Consider the cloud service provider’s security policies to ensure the safety of your data.

Patents and licensing for software

A software license is a legally enforceable document that places restrictions on the use and distribution of software.

Typically, software licenses allow users to make multiple copies of the licensed software without breaking copyright. The license specifies the responsibilities of the parties to the agreement and may impose usage limits on the program.

Generally, software licensing terms and conditions include fair use of the software, liability limitations, warranties, disclaimers, and protections in the event that the software or its use infringes on the intellectual property rights of others.

Typically, licenses pertain to proprietary software, which remains the property of the organization, group, or person who created it. or for free software, where users are permitted to run, study, modify, and distribute the software. Open source is a type of software in which the source code is openly accessible and the software is produced cooperatively. Similar to free software, open source software licenses allow users to run, copy, share, and modify the software.

Over the course of the past two decades, software providers have shifted from selling software licenses on a one-time basis to a subscription-based approach. Customers pay a monthly fee to access the software over the internet, which is hosted by software vendors in the cloud.

Although copyright can prevent others from copying a developer’s code, it cannot prevent them from independently producing identical software without copying. A patent, on the other hand, enables a developer to block a third party from utilizing the functional components of software claimed in a patent, even if the third party independently developed the software.

In general, the more complex the software, the greater the likelihood that it can be patented. A software product may be given a patent if, for instance, it establishes a new type of database structure or improves the overall performance and functionality of a computer.


Popular software companies

The services provided by software companies fall into one of four types.

Programming services, system services, SaaS, and open source. Software licenses, maintenance services, subscription fees, and support fees generate money for vendors.

Microsoft offers the Windows operating system, the Office suite of apps, and the Azure cloud computing service. The world’s largest software corporation also creates server apps, tablets, and video game consoles.

Oracle provides cloud infrastructure and enterprise software solutions, such as the database software that has contributed to its success. Additionally, it distributes Java programming tools and supplies server and storage hardware. Oracle develops sales, service, marketing, finance, human resources, logistics, and manufacturing software.

SAP is a global software firm established in Germany that specializes in enterprise solutions. SAP delivers management and e-commerce software, as well as a variety of services that include software management and integration training and consultancy.

Adobe‘s product catalogue includes, amongst other things, the well-known Illustrator graphic design program, as well as the Acrobat document editing tool and the Photoshop photo editing tool. Other Adobe products cater to multimedia, creative endeavors, and digital marketing.

VMware is a software firm that specializes in computer technology management tools. Its core competencies include cloud computing and virtualization. Users are able to imitate the operating environments of personal computers on servers or desktop processors by using this company’s software.

History of software

Until the late 1950s, the term software was not used. Although other forms of programming software were invented during this time, they were often not commercially available. Consequently, users, mostly scientists and major businesses, were frequently required to create their own software.

What Is Computer?

What Is Computer?

What is computer – This article provides an overview of the basic components of a computer system. You will learn what is a computer definition, how the computer work, basic parts of computer, the advantages and disadvantages of computer, history of computer, and many more.

What is a Computer Definition?

A computer is a machine that performs processes, calculations, and operations based on instructions provided by a software or hardware program.

Data can be input, processed, and output.

Computers can store data for later use inappropriate storage devices, and retrieve whenever it is necessary.

A modern computer is an electronic device used for a variety of purposes. From web browsing to writing documents, editing videos, creating applications, playing video games, and much more.

A computer system is a collection of hardware and software that enables an individual or organization to complete a task or achieve a goal.

What is Computer Full Form?

“Computer” is not an acronym, it is a word derived from the word “compute”. You can’t just “compute” anything. You need a computer.

In simple words, you can say that a computer is an electronic device that is used for fast calculation.

According to others, COMPUTER means something entirely different: common operating system purposefully used for technological and educational research.

This is a myth because it doesn’t make any sense, and even if it did, computing devices were invented long before computers.

How does a Computer Work?

Computers don’t emulate the human brain. Instead, they run programs that process data sequentially, while data moves constantly from input to memory to the device’s processor.

Neuromorphic computers, on the other hand, are more efficient than current computers, they are also more similar to the structure of the human brain and they are able to perform complex calculations very quickly.

The operation of a computer can be broken down into four stages:

Input is the data that is provided before it is processed. It is generated by the computer’s mouse, keyboard, microphone, and any other external sensors that are present. The data that is entered into the computer is stored in the computer’s storage.

The hard drive is used for storing data for lengthy periods of time and in large quantities, while the Random Access Memory (RAM) is utilized temporarily to store the data set for quick processing (RAM).

Processing: Processing is the step that transforms the incoming data into the final output. The Central Processing Unit, or CPU, of the computer can be thought of as its “brain.” It is in charge of carrying out the instructions that have been given to it and conducting mathematical operations on the data that has been input.

Output is the end outcome of any data processing that has been done. It might be anything, including still photographs, moving pictures, audio recordings, or even the words that you type on a keyboard. If you like, rather than receiving the output straight through your device, you can get it through a printer or a projector instead.

Basic Parts of Computer System

1. Motherboard

The term “motherboard” refers to the circuit board that all of the components of a computer use to communicate with one another.

Consider the motherboard to be the adhesive that binds everything else in place; this is its primary function.

An integrated chipset, also known as a built-in chipset, is located on the motherboard. This chipset houses both the video card and the central processing unit.

Input/output devices such as a keyboard, mouse, and speakers should be hooked into this port.

2. CPU (Central Processing Unit)

Because of its direct connector connection to the motherboard and its ability to communicate with all of the computer’s other components, the central processing unit (CPU) is frequently referred to as the “brain” of a computer.

What it does is translate each line of code that you type into assembly language, which is a language that the computer’s processor is able to comprehend. This occurs regardless of whether you are using Python, Java, or C++ as your programming language of choice. It retrieves the instructions, decodes them, and then puts them into action.

And this is where the central processing unit (CPU) comes into play; the CPU is responsible for taking care of all the processes that a computer manages.

3. GPU (Graphics Procession Unit)

It is not uncommon to hear players become obsessed with the upcoming release of a new graphics card. This is because graphic cards make it possible for computers to generate high-end pictures, similar to those that can be found in the wide variety of video games.

Good graphics cards aren’t just useful for playing video games, though; they’re also helpful for people whose trade depends on visuals for its execution, such as 3D modelers who use software that requires a lot of resources.

What it does: Because graphics cards frequently interface directly with the display monitor, purchasing a graphics card that costs $1,000 but does not have a high-end monitor connected to it is not going to be very useful.

4. RAM (Random Access Memory)

Exactly what it is: Data that pertains to programs and processes that are accessed frequently is stored in RAM, which is also referred to as volatile memory. (The fact that it is wiped out whenever the computer is restarted is what gives it the name “volatile memory.”)

RAM’s primary function is to speed up the launch and shutdown of software applications and video games.

5. Storage (Harddisk or SSD)

All computers require a location in which they may store their data. Hard Disk Drives (HDD) or Solid State Drives (SSD) are the storage media of choice in today’s computers (SSD).

What it does is store data onto a physical disk, which is how hard disk drives (HDDs) are constructed. A mechanical arm is used to read the disk’s data. (Hard disk drives are currently becoming less common as time goes on, despite the fact that they are less expensive than SSDs.)

SSDs, which are similar to SIM cards, do not include any moving parts and are far quicker than hard drives. This is because there is no time wasted waiting for a mechanical arm to find data on a specific physical place on the disk.

Benefits of Using Computer

The use of computers has become quite important in today’s society. The use of computers has an effect on almost every facet of our lives. Despite the fact that there are some drawbacks associated with utilizing a computer, we believe that the benefits much outweigh the negatives. If you are on the fence about whether or not to purchase a computer for your child, perhaps the benefits outlined below will help sway your choice in the positive direction.

Boost the efficiency of your work.

The use of computers can make you more productive, and if you have a solid understanding of the software that runs on them, you can enhance your productivity even further across the board. For instance, if you have a fundamental understanding of how to use a word processor, you will be able to produce, save, edit, publish, and share written materials such as letters and documents. With the technology that were available at the time, none of these jobs could be completed, or they could only be done very slowly.

Puts you in contact with the Internet.

The full capability of a computer may be accessed once it is connected to the Internet. Once you are connected, the choices and available alternatives you have in terms of the information at your disposal are virtually endless. A computer that is linked to the Internet is required for access to many of the benefits that are outlined on this page.

Can store enormous amounts of data and significantly cut down on waste

The quantity of information that can be stored on and retrieved by computers is truly staggering. For instance, if it has sufficient storage capacity, a computer or other device, such as an eBook reader, is capable of storing hundreds or even thousands of volumes. Digitally storing items such as books, documents, videos, images, and songs enables you to more easily search for and share the information you require across several devices, which saves time. This eradicates the requirement for the use of paper in the production of analog versions of the media.

Facilitates the classification, organization, and searching of information.

A computer has the ability to make more effective use of the information it has saved than any other technology. In our last illustration, we mentioned that there is the capacity to store thousands of volumes. After being uploaded onto a computer, those books can be quickly organized into groups, arranged in alphabetical order, and searched to help you locate exactly what you’re looking for in a matter of seconds. It would take a human being many months, if not years, to search through one thousand volumes in order to identify the specific content.

Acquire a deeper comprehension of the facts.

You can also have a better grasp of data and big data through the use of computers. One example of a database that a company might have is one that contains all of the products that it has previously sold. They are able to swiftly discover what sells well at what period of the year, when to mark products up or down, and what items are not selling by using the data they have collected. The fact that the company has access to this kind of information provides them with a competitive advantage over their rivals as well as a greater understanding of their own customers.

Helps you maintain your connection

Through the use of e-mail and other forms of social networking, computers make it easier to maintain relationships with friends and family who live at a distance. Through online discussion groups, live chat, and voice over internet protocol (VoIP) services like Skype, you can also interact with millions of people who have the same interests as you. Connecting with people from all over the world is not only fun but also a fantastic method to get to know people you would never have the chance to talk to otherwise.

Assist you in gaining knowledge and maintaining your awareness.

When it comes to the effects that computers have on our neighborhood, being linked to the Internet is among the most significant of those effects. It is an instructional tool that teaches you practically anything that piques your curiosity and provides solutions to almost any question. You can also access worldwide news in order to stay current on all of the most recent news, weather, and stories that are taking place around the world. You could acquire new skills by reading articles on websites or watching movies on YouTube. You may also enroll in online classes that teach you about any topic that you would study in a traditional classroom setting.

Making money online using computer

A personal computer that is linked to the internet opens up a wide variety of possibilities for generating income for its user. To illustrate, opening and operating an online store requires significantly less financial investment than a traditional retail location. Additionally, if your store or product is available online, it is exposed to a global audience, and you have the potential to sell to anyone in the world.

There are more benefits that you can think of when using a computer instead of manual process.

What are Advantage of Computer

The benefits of using a computer include:

Multitasking Multitasking

Multitasking One of the primary benefits of using a computer is the ability to perform multiple tasks at once. A person is capable of performing numerous tasks and operations at the same time, as well as calculating numerical problems in a few of seconds. A single second is enough time for a computer to do millions or perhaps trillions of tasks.


A computer is much more than just a calculating tool these days. The computer has become an indispensable tool in modern society. One of the most significant benefits of computers is their remarkable speed, which enables humans to do their work in a matter of seconds rather than minutes.

Cost saving in storage space

Regarding the quantity of knowledge, the answer is in the price of the coffee. A person can save massive amounts of data while only spending the price of a coffee. The most significant benefit, which will result in cost savings, is the centralized database for the storage of information.


One of the most fundamental benefits of using a computer is that it can not only conduct computations, but it can also do it accurately.


Because the computer is capable of doing the work so much more quickly, the degree of productivity immediately doubles itself.

Saving Time

Reduces the amount of work that needs to be done — Because information is frequently accessed by more than one individual, there is often a need for work to be duplicated.


Reliability is achieved by computers because they are able to carry out the same type of task again without making errors due to exhaustion or boredom, both of which are prevalent human traits.


The personal computer has a memory that is built right in, and it’s capable of storing an enormous quantity of information. Additionally, you have the option of storing data in supplementary storage devices.

What Are Disadvantages of Computer

Computers have the following drawbacks:

Attacks using viruses and hacking software

A virus might be a worm, while hacking is simply gaining unauthorized access to a computer for the goal of committing a crime. The virus may spread to another system if the user opened an infected email attachment, looked at an advertisement on an infected website, or used a portable device such as a USB drive.
Crimes Committed Using Computers and the Internet Cybercrime, often known as online crime, refers to any criminal activity that involves the use of computers and the internet. The terms “cyberstalking” and “online fraud” are examples of crimes that can be committed while using the internet.

Reduction in the number of employment opportunities

Because the previous generation wasn’t acclimated to computers or didn’t have the knowledge to utilize them, they had a difficult time adjusting when computers became widespread in the workplace.
Computers tend to come with a hefty price tag. Even the most widely available low-cost computers are still out of reach financially for the average citizen in South Africa. because computers give humans more power.

Distractions and disruptions

If you’ve ever spent hours at a time watching movies on YouTube or surfing the web, then you know how distracting computers can be! due to the fact that they offer a great deal of entertainment.

Electronic Trash

Causes an increase in trash and has a negative effect on the environment because of the rapid rate at which computers and other electronic devices are replaced All of the outdated devices that are discarded have a significant negative effect on the environment.

Features of Computer System

The following characteristics can be found on the computer:

The computer is a fast machine

The amount of data that can be calculated by computers is truly staggering.

A computer is capable of performing millions of calculations in a short amount of time, whereas a regular person would need a lot of time to complete the same amount of work. A computer can perform the same amount of work extremely effectively in a very short amount of time.

Accurate Capabilities

Computers are both highly quick and very accurate in their calculations.

The computation that was done by the computer is correct one hundred percent of the time, and the mistake was quite little.

If the human input is accurate, the computer will perform its tasks with a precision of one hundred percent.

Storage for big data

One of the most important capabilities of a computer is that it can store a significant amount of information.

We are able to store a wide variety of data kinds within the computer, including photographs, videos, text, music, files, and many others.

A computer has a much greater capacity for storing information than a person does.


Computers never fatigued like humans.

The computer is capable of working nonstop without getting weary, making mistakes, or getting bored, and it can do so without pausing.

Computers are able to carry out one or more jobs in a continuous manner with the same level of precision and speed.


The computer is an extremely adaptable piece of equipment, and it is quite simple to use.

The computer is a piece of equipment that is put to use in a variety of settings to address a broad spectrum of issues.

There are places where it is used for calculation, and there are other places where it is utilized for gaming.


Because of their precision and vast storage capacities, computers are extremely dependable pieces of machinery.

The purpose of computers is to facilitate the completion of routine tasks.


An example of an automatic machine is a computer. A computer is capable of carrying out all of its operations on its own. This indicates that once the computer begins working on a task, there is no need for any more involvement from a person.

What are Limitations of Computer?

No common sense

One of the most significant shortcomings of computer systems is that they cannot do this. In spite of how effective, quick, and trustworthy computer systems may be, there is no way to build logic into them, therefore they do not have any common sense. This is because there is no algorithm that is foolproof enough to do so. Because their operation is dependent on the stored program(s), computers are devoid of any kind of common sense.

Don’t have IQ

One of the shortcomings of computer systems is that they have no IQ at all. This is another one of their limitations (IQ). They are unable to perceive and think of the actions to perform in a particular circumstance unless that situation is already programmed into them. They are unable to see and think of the actions to conduct in a particular situation. Computers may be instructed to carry out any and all tasks, regardless of how menial or trivial they may be.

Lack of ability to make decisions

The process of making a decision is a challenging endeavor that requires a person to have information, knowledge, intelligence, wisdom, and the capacity to judge. The computer system is not capable of making decisions on its own since it does not include all of the components that are necessary for decision-making.

They are capable of being programmed to make such decisions, which are concerned solely with following procedures. Because it lacks the wisdom and judgment capabilities necessary to make a decision, a computer will not make a choice if it has not been designed to handle a certain decision scenario. On the other hand, human beings have this extremely potent ability of decision-making at their disposal.

Generations of Computer

The Development of Computers Over Five Generations

First generation, between the years 1940 and 1950 the computer is on Vacuum tube based

Second generation, during the years 1950 and 1960 the computer start using transistors replacing Vacuum tube

Third generation, about the years 1960–1970 based on integrated circuit technology

Fourth generation people born between 1970 and nowadays Powered by a microprocessor

Fifth generation Both now and in the foreseeable future Artificial intelligence based

What is Classification of Computer?


A PC is a tiny, affordable personal computer. PCs use microprocessor technology that fits a CPU on one chip. Businesses utilize PCs for word processing, bookkeeping, desktop publishing, spreadsheet, and database administration. At home, PCs are mostly used for games and Internet.

Although PCs are single-user systems, they’re usually networked. High-end Macintosh and PC models offer the same computational power and graphics as low-end Sun, HP, and Dell workstations.


Workstations are used for engineering (CAD/CAM), desktop publishing, software development, and other activities requiring moderate computing power and high-quality graphics.

Workstations have a large, high-resolution graphics screen, lots of RAM, built-in network capabilities, and a GUI. Most workstations have a disk drive, while diskless workstations don’t.

UNIX and Windows NT are workstation OSes. Workstations are single-user computers like PCs but are usually joined together to form a local area network.

Mini computers

These computers came out in the mid-1960s and were significantly cheaper than mainframes. They were meant for control, instrumentation, human contact, and communication switching, not calculating and record keeping.

In the 1960s, to describe smaller computers made possible by transistors, core memory, basic instruction sets, and cheaper peripherals like the Teletype Model 33 ASR.

Compared to the massive mainframes that could fill a room, they were called “MINICOMPUTERS” (e.g., laptops, PCs, etc.).

Mainframe computers

These are commonly called “big iron” and are used by large organizations for bulk data processing such as stats, census data processing, transaction processing, and are widely used as servers as these systems have a higher processing capability than other classes of computers. Most of these mainframe architectures were established in the 1960s, but research and development has continued and the mainframes of today are far more powerful.

IBM z Series, System z9, System z10 servers.

Super Computer

Supercomputers are the fastest. A supercomputer is a high-performance computer. FLOPS, not MIPS, measure a supercomputer’s performance. All 500 fastest supercomputers use Linux. China, the US, the EU, Taiwan, and Japan are conducting additional research to construct faster, more advanced supercomputers. Supercomputers are employed in quantum physics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling, and physical simulations. both Supercomputers have always been important in cryptanalysis.

Param, jaguar, roadrunner.


Components of Computer System

Even though there are a number of other elements, these three are the ones that are principally accountable for the operation of a computer. They have to cooperate perfectly with one another because only that will allow the system as a whole to run smoothly. Because of this, we can even refer to them as the fundamental components of a computer system.

Input component

These components enable users enter data and commands. Data includes numbers, words, activities, and commands. Input devices feed computer commands and data. CPUs process the input and provide output.

A laptop’s keyboard inserts numbers and characters. Even a mouse can enter commands and directions. Barcode readers, MICR, OCR, etc. are further examples.

Touch-screens are input devices. Touching these displays enters commands. Smartphones and ATMs use these input devices.


After receiving data and directions from users, a computer system must now process the information in accordance with the specified instructions. In this instance, it must rely on a component known as the central processing unit. The CPU also uses the following three elements:

a) Memory Module

When a user submits information via input devices, the computer system stores the information in its memory unit. This data will persist until it is processed by other CPU components. The memory unit employs a set of pre-programmed instructions to transfer this information to other CPU components.

b) Unit of Arithmetic and Logic

This portion of the CPU executes mathematical operations. It performs elementary mathematical operations such as addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. In addition, it can execute logical operations such as data comparison.

c) Control Module

This component is the foundation of computers. It is in charge of coordinating tasks between all computer system components. The control unit takes data from input units and, depending on its nature, transmits it to processing units. Additionally, it communicates the processed data to output units for users.

Output component

The output unit is the third and final component of a computer system. After data has been processed, it is translated into a format that humans can comprehend. After conversion, output units present this information to users. Output devices include monitors, displays, printers, and speakers. Therefore, output units repeat the data formatted by the computer for the advantage of the user.

Uses of Computer System

Today, computers are utilized in all fields. In the 21st century, we rely solely on computers. Today, computers are an integral part of our lives.

Please read 22 Uses Of Laptop In Business And Daily Life To Get A Better Results for more details computer system applications.

The applications of computers in numerous fields are listed below.

Utilizations of the Computer in Education

Computer Applications in Health and Medicine

Utilizations of the Computer in Business

Computer Applications in the Entertainment Industry

Utilizations of the computer in Science

Utilizations of the Computer in Government

Utilizations of the Computer in Sports

Utilizations of the Computer in Hospitals

Utilizations of the computer in the Banking industry

Utilizations of the computer in Marketing

Computer Applications in the Military

Computer applications at the Railway Station

History of Computer

First Computer

The ENIAC, created by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania, was the first significant computer. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator) utilized a 10-digit decimal word as opposed to the binary ones utilized by earlier automated calculators and computers. ENIAC was also the first machine to use more than 2,000 vacuum tubes, employing over 18,000. More than 167 square meters (about 1800 square feet) of floor space was required to store these vacuum tubes and the gear required to keep them cool. It contained punched-card input and output, as well as one multiplier, one divider-square rooter, and twenty adders utilising decimal “ring counters,” which served as both adders and quick-access (0.0002 second) read-write register storage.

Instructions comprising a program were embodied in the various units of ENIAC, which were connected to establish a path for the flow of computations through the computer. These connections were required to be recreated for each unique issue, along with the presetting of function tables and switches. This “wire-your-own” instruction technique was inconvenient, and ENIAC could only be considered programmable with a license; yet, it was effective at handling the programs for which it was designed. From 1946 through 1955, ENIAC was widely regarded as the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer (EDC), and it was utilized commercially. In 1971, however, a debate arose regarding the patentability of ENIAC’s fundamental digital concepts, as it was claimed that another U.S. physicist, John V. Atanasoff, had utilized the same ideas in a simpler vacuum-tube system he constructed in the 1930s while attending Iowa State College. In 1973, the court sided with the corporation using Atanasoff’s claim, and Atanasoff gained the recognition he deserved.

Advancement of Hardware

In the 1950s, two machines would be built that would advance the field of computing and spark the beginning of the computer revolution. The transistor was the first of these two devices. In 1947, William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain of Bell Laboratories invented the transistor, which was destined to replace vacuum tubes in computers, radios, and other electronic devices.

Vaccum Tubes
In 1906, American physicist Lee De Forest invented the vacuum tube, which was subsequently utilized in virtually all computers and calculators. The vacuum tube, which is roughly the size of a human thumb, operated by utilizing massive quantities of power to heat a filament inside the tube until it turned bright red. By heating this filament, electrons were released into the tube, which could be controlled by other elements within the tube. The initial device created by De Forest was a triode, which could regulate the flow of electrons to the positively charged plate within the tube. The absence of an electron current to the plate would then indicate a zero, while the presence of a modest but detectable current would represent a one.

Vacuum tubes were extremely inefficient, required a large amount of space, and required frequent replacement. In the 1940s and 1950s, computers contained 18,000 tubes, and holding all these tubes and cooling the rooms heated by 18,000 tubes was expensive. The transistor promised to address all of these problems and it did so. However, transistors have their own problems. Similar to other electronic components, transistors were required to be soldered together. The greater the complexity of the circuits, the more intricate and numerous the connections between the individual transistors, and the greater the possibility of erroneous wiring.

This problem was also solved in 1958 by Jack St. Clair Kilby of Texas Instruments. He created the initial integrated circuit or chip. A chip is a collection of small transistors that are joined together during the manufacturing process. Thus, the requirement to solder together a large number of transistors was almost eliminated, leaving just the need to connect other electronic components. In addition to reducing space, the machine’s speed was boosted as a result of the decreased distance the electrons had to travel.

Mainframes to PCs

During the 1960s, big mainframe computers were increasingly prevalent in large enterprises, the US military, and the space program. IBM became the undisputed market leader in the sale of these massive, costly, error-prone, and extremely difficult to operate machines.
In the early 1970s, there was a true explosion of personal computers, beginning with Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak showing the first Apple II at the First West Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco. The Apple II included an integrated BASIC programming language, color graphics, and 4100 character memory at a price of $1,298. A typical audio cassette recorder is capable of storing programs and data. Wozniak and Jobs received 300 orders for the Apple II by the end of the fair, after which Apple took off.

1977 also saw the introduction of the TRS-80. This was a Tandy Radio Shack-manufactured home computer. The TRS-80 Model II’s second iteration included a 64,000-character memory and a disk drive for storing programs and data. Only Apple and TRS had machines with disk drives at the time. Personal computer programs flourished after the introduction of the disk drive, as floppy disks were the most convenient publishing media for software distribution.

IBM, which had previously produced mainframes and minicomputers for medium to big organizations, decided it had to get involved and began developing the Acorn, eventually renamed the IBM Personal Computer. The PC was the first computer developed for the home market with a modular design that allowed for easy addition of new components. Surprisingly, the majority of the components came from outside IBM, as developing it using IBM components would have been too expensive for the home computer market. The PC was debuted with a 16,000-character memory, an IBM electric typewriter keyboard, and a tape cassette player connector for $1,265.

Apple and IBM have released new models by 1984. The original Macintosh was the first computer to include a graphical user interface (GUI) and a mouse. The GUI increased the machine’s appeal to home computer users because it was simple to operate. Sales of the Macintosh skyrocketed like never before. IBM produced the 286-AT, which with applications such as Lotus 1-2-3, a spreadsheet, and Microsoft Word, quickly became the preferred business computer.

This brings us to approximately ten years ago. Currently, individuals have access to personal graphics workstations and potent home PCs. A typical home computer is significantly more powerful than ENIAC by several orders of magnitude. The computer revolution is the most rapidly expanding technology in human history.

6 Parts of A Computer You Should Know

Parts of a Computer – A computer is made up of many different components. The central processing unit (also known as a CPU), random access memory (RAM), and graphics processing unit (also known as a GPU) are all examples of these.

You should probably educate yourself on the storage hard drive as well, as it is the device that is utilized for storing data. In the end, though, it is necessary for all computers to store data.

Hard disk drives are the most common type of storage device because of their ability to hold data and be read by a mechanical arm. Since solid-state drives do not include any moving parts, they are able to operate more efficiently and at a faster rate than hard drives.

Finally, the motherboard of a computer is what links all of these individual components together. Name the parts of a computer and their explanation are below:

1. Central Processing Unit (CPU or Processor)

parts of a computer CPU

Your central processing unit, also known simply as the processor, is the most important component of your computer. The processor reads the instructions from a program and carries out those instructions in accordance with the requirements of the processor.

The entirety of the process can be broken down into three distinct stages: retrieving the instruction from memory, decoding it, and carrying it out by utilizing the relevant components of the central processing unit (CPU). The central processing unit (CPU) is capable of doing fundamental arithmetic operations, such as comparing two numbers, carrying out a function, and even moving numbers about in memory.

Imagine a central processing unit to be your calculator. You might want to watch a video on YouTube on your computer, or you might want to use your computer to figure out the compound interest on a spreadsheet.

The central processing unit (CPU) is responsible for analyzing data received from peripheral devices and software applications before passing it along to other components of the computer system for display.

In addition to this, it is capable of performing ancillary functions like as storing data or surfing the internet.

Ted Hoff came up with the idea for the central processing unit (CPU) in the early 1970s. The 4004 model was the first processor that was built by Intel. The ALU and the CU are the two primary parts that make up a central processing unit. The ALU of the CPU is the part of the CPU that is responsible for performing logical and mathematical calculations, and the CU is the section of the CPU that is responsible for directing processor actions.

2. RAM (Random Access Memory or Memory)

parts of a computer memory

The quantity of memory that is accessible on a computer has a significant impact on how quickly it can do tasks. When compared to a computer that has sufficient memory, one that does not will have a slower operating speed. When a computer has more random access memory (RAM), it can load applications more quickly. In 1947, random access memory (RAM) was initially developed as the Williams tube, which made use of an electro-luminescent cathode ray tube. The surface of the tube contains a pattern of electrically charged dots, which are used to store the information.

There are two distinct varieties of RAM available. The static and the dynamic aspects Both kinds use semiconductors and capacitors in their construction. Both a transistor and a capacitor can be found inside of a DRAM memory cell. The bit of data is stored in the capacitor. While the device is being used normally, the data is gradually released as the transistors and capacitors gradually deplete. In order to keep the information that is stored in it, dynamic random access memory (DRAM) needs to have its contents updated every few milliseconds.

3. Graphics processing unit, or GPU

parts of a computer GPU

The graphics processing unit, sometimes known as the graphics card, is the component of your computer that is responsible for rendering the images displayed on the screen. Because it is not the same as the CPU, replacing it with a new GPU might free up the CPU to be used for other activities. Your graphics processing unit (GPU) has its own processing units, so you won’t have to be concerned about it dragging down the performance of your computer as a whole. Graphics cards can either be included into the central processing unit (CPU) or used independently. If you want to have a smooth visual gaming experience or play games, you should invest in a graphics card of a good grade.

Your GPU is capable of performing a wide variety of jobs. Deep learning, also known as machine learning, as well as big data analysis are some of them. Mining digital currencies can potentially be done with a graphics processing unit (GPU). All of these are complex tasks that, many years ago, would have necessitated the use of a supercomputer. The graphics processing units (GPUs) should be thanked for the technological improvements that they enable. How exactly do we go about selecting the suitable GPU or graphics card for our personal computer? Let’s take a look at some of the key distinctions between the two.

4. Storage ( Harddisk or SSD)

parts of a computer harddisk

A computer’s hard drive is an essential component that cannot be separated from the machine and is required for it to function properly. It has a number of tiny disks that have been covered with magnetic material and are referred to as platters. After that, the information that was saved on the disk is read and copied onto the hard drive. The size of the disk and the amount of data it can hold determine the amount of storage space available on a computer. When you upgrade your computer, you need to make sure you keep track of the data that you store on the drive.

In 1953, engineers working for IBM came up with the concept of the first hard disk. The data storage capacity of the disk was approximately 3.75 megabytes, and it was about the size of a refrigerator. In 1956, they initiated their very first shipments. Some of the earliest companies to sell products utilizing this technology included Memorex, Seagate Technology, and Western Digital. After it, a number of other companies began manufacturing hard drives in the years that followed. Hard disks were more expensive to produce as a result of an increase in the number of users who required more storage capacity. Eventually, hard disks were phased out in favor of solid-state drives (SSDs).

5. Motherboard

parts of a computer motherboard
A computer cannot function without a motherboard. Memory chips, CPUs, switches, connectors, and several other electrical devices make up the majority of the components on this circuit board. This one piece of hardware is responsible for connecting all of the other parts. Over the years, the connectors on the motherboard have undergone numerous revisions, but certain elements have remained the same. These shifts have resulted in a significant improvement to the layout of current computers. In this post, we will discuss some of the fundamental components as well as the roles that they play.

Your components can be connected to the motherboard via one of its many available slots and ports. The central processing unit (CPU) is the most important part of the computer, and the motherboard has two memory controllers. On a typical motherboard, there are four sockets, and each socket can accommodate two memory sticks. The slots are normally labeled with a color that corresponds to the controller for which they are responsible, and the term “channel” is typically used to refer to the slots. While channel #1 is responsible for two memory slots, channel #2 is responsible for two slots. You must pay attention to the information displayed on the motherboard in order to determine the type of memory socket that you require. Motherboards come with a variety of various types of memory sockets.

6. Power Supply

parts of computer power supply

A computer power supply is a unit that powered all parts of the computer above and is used to convert mains AC into DC power. Modern personal computers are commonly powered by switched-mode power supplies.  You have to select the right power supply wattage and connector for your computer. In addition, you should check if the computer power supply is compatible with your motherboard. Some computer power supply is part of the casing, however for high-end power supply, you must buy them separately.


Parts of a computer have their own name and functions. They can be detached from the motherboard and we can buy each of the parts separately. We need to know these parts as it will determine the type of computer we want to buy.

What Is RAM And Its Function In A Computer

What we need to know about RAM, why it is needed by the computer, even the computer will not work without it. Various types of RAM available in the market and its designation, please refer to the following article:

Random access memory (RAM) is a type of computer storage whose contents can be accessed in a fixed time regardless of where the data is in memory. This is the opposite of sequential memory devices, such as magnetic tapes, disks and drums, where the mechanical movement of the storage media forces the computer to access data sequentially.

First known in the 60s. It’s just that semiconductor memory is not yet popular because the price is very expensive. It was more common to use magnetic main memory.

Semiconductor companies like Intel debuted by producing RAM, more precisely the type of DRAM.

Usually RAM can be written and read, as opposed to ROM (read-only-memory), RAM is usually used for primary storage (main memory) in a computer to be used and change information actively, although some devices use several types of RAM to provide secondary storage term -long.

But there are also those who argue that ROM is another type of RAM, because of its true nature as well as Random Access like SRAM or DRAM. It’s just that the process of writing on ROM requires a special process that is not as easy and flexible as it is on SRAM or DRAM. In addition, some parts of the RAM memory space (main memory) of a system are mapped into one or two ROM chips.

Various RAM Type

SRAM or Static RAM

NV-RAM or Non-Volatile RAM

DRAM or Dynamic RAM

Fast Page Mode DRAM

EDO RAM or Extended Data Out DRAM


SDRAM or Synchronous DRAM

DDR SDRAM or Double Data Rate Synchronous DRAM now (2005) is starting to be replaced by DDR2

RDRAM or Rambus DRAM

There are 2 types of RAM that are generally known, Static RAM (SRAM), and Dynamic RAM (DRAM). In SRAM, little data is stored by a method known as the 6 transistor memory cell method. This type of RAM will be more expensive to produce, but is generally faster and requires less power than DRAM, and, in modern computers, is often used as memory cache on the CPU. DRAM stores a small amount of data using transistors and capacitors (a pair), which together cover a DRAM memory cell. The capacitors withstand high or low load / power (1.0, respectively), and the transistor acts as a switch that gives the circuit control to the chip to read the power status of the capacitor or replace it. Because this type of memory is relatively cheaper to produce than SRAM, DRAM is a form of RAM that is more often used on modern computers.

Both Static RAM and Dynamic RAM, are considered vulnerable, where the situation will be lost or reset when the system loses power. In contrast, ROM (in English: Read-Only Memory) stores data by permanently activating / deactivating selected transistors, so that the memory cannot be changed. Variations in ROM that can store data (such as EEPROM and Flash Memory) share data both in ROM and RAM, making data accessible without power and can be updated without the need for special tools. This semiconductor ROM includes USB flash drives, memory cards for cameras, portable devices, etc. ECC Memory (which can be either SRAM or DRAM) has a special circuit for detecting or correcting random errors (memory errors) in the stored data, using parity bits or error correction codes.

In general, the term RAM refers to solid-state memory devices (both SRAM and DRAM), and more specifically the main memory on most computers. In optical storage, the term DVD-RAM is a little wrong because, unlike CD-RW or DVD-RW, DVD-RAM does not need to be cleansed (erased) before reuse. But DVD-RAM behaves / works like a Hard-Disk Drive (HDD) even though it is slower.

RAM generally has 2 types based on its use on a PC or laptop / notebook, RAM type DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) and SODIMM (Small Outline Dual In-line Memory Module). This type of RAM SODIMM is commonly used in devices that have a narrow space or space such as laptops or notebooks, small footprints, high-end printers and routers. While the type of DIMM RAM is commonly used on a computer or PC.

Now I hope you now have a better understanding of what is RAM type and function on a computer.

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