What Is USB Full Form?

What Is USB Full Form?

USB full form is Universal Serial Bus. The Universal Serial Bus (USB) was introduced in 1994 by a consortium comprising seven different companies, Compaq, DEC, IBM, Microsoft, Intel, NEC, and Nortel. USB was designed to simplify the process of connecting external devices to a computer.

A USB device is compatible with a variety of devices like mice, keyboards, printers, scanners, speakers, and many more. It is also supported by many operating systems, including Android, Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux.

USB full form - USB port on laptop
Foto of USB type A on a laptop

Not only exist on laptops and desktop computers USB is also used by smartphones and tablets to charge their batteries and transmit data to computers as well received.

In January of 1996, the Universal Serial Bus (version 1. 0) was made available for the first time to the public. This particular industry standard was then rapidly embraced by a variety of companies, including Intel, Compaq, and Microsoft, amongst others.

usb full form - usb type c
Foto of USB type C on a smartphone

USB devices

There are a wide variety of USB devices that can connect to your computer today. The following list provides examples of some of the most typical.

USB printers, USB Disks, USB Keyboard, USB Mouse.

USB transfer speed

USB 1.0
An external bus standard known as USB 1.x can accommodate up to 127 peripheral devices and can facilitate data transfer rates of up to 12 megabits per second (Mbps). The image provides an illustration of a USB cable that has been attached to a USB port.

USB 2.0
Compaq, Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Lucent, Microsoft, NEC, and Phillips were among the companies that contributed to the development of USB 2.0, commonly known as high-speed USB, which was released in 2001. The maximum data transfer rate that can be supported by a Hi-Speed USB connection is 480 megabits per second (Mbps), which is equivalent to 60 megabytes per second (MBps).

USB 3.0
Buffalo Technology was the first company to make the USB 3.0 standard, also known as SuperSpeed USB, available to consumers in November 2009; however, approved devices did not become commercially available until January 2010. The USB 3. 0 technology was an improvement over the USB 2. 0 standard since it had better speed and performance, enhanced power management, and expanded bandwidth potential. It offers two data routes, each of which is unidirectional, so that users can simultaneously send and receive data. The USB 3.0 standard allows for data transfer speeds of up to 5.0 gigabits per second (Gbps), which is equivalent to 640 megabytes per second (MBps).

USB 3.1
As a result of the release of USB 3. 1, it has been given the official designation “USB 3. 1 Gen1” for the purposes of marketing. Motherboards produced by ASUS and Gigabyte Technology were among the first products to receive certification. Since April 2011, Dell has equipped its Inspiron and Dell XPS computer series with USB 3.0 connectors as standard equipment.

The most recent version of the USB protocol is known as USB 3. 1, which became available on July 31, 2013, and is also referred to by its previous name, SuperSpeed+. The transfer rates that may be achieved with USB 3. 1 are up to 10 Gbps, which places it on par with the first iteration of Apple’s Thunderbolt channel. Many gadgets on the market today make use of USB 3. 0 and 3. 1 versions, which offer enhanced performance and speed respectively.

USB ports alternatives

The serial and parallel ports that are found on older PCs can be replaced with USB ports as an alternative. The data transfer speeds that are supported by USB ports are sometimes 100 times or more higher than those supported by serial or parallel connectors.

When it comes to the networking of computers, Ethernet ports are sometimes utilized rather of USB ports. FireWire ports are also sometimes offered for use with specific varieties of computer accessories. Despite the fact that they do not transmit any electricity across the cable, Ethernet and FireWire are both capable of providing a performance that is superior to that of USB.

Computer Output Devices

Computer Output Devices

Computer output devices are different devices that allow a computer to send information to the outside world. The data is inputted to the input devices, then processed by the CPU, and finally sent to the output devices. This can include displays, printers, projectors, modems, and speakers.

1. Monitor

The computer monitor is an electronic device that allows people to see images and text on a screen. It is usually mounted on a desk or wall, and used for work, entertainment, or communication.

CRT monitor

output devices crt monitor

The CRT monitor is a type of monitor that uses a Cathode Ray Tube to display images. It has a huge form and much heavy than an LCD monitor. The difference with TV is the monitor doesn’t have tunes and speakers.

LCD monitor

lcd monitor

A monitor that uses LCD technology. This technology uses a liquid crystal material in a matrix to create an image. LCDs are usually smaller and lighter than CRT monitors, and they are also able to display more colors. We also find an LED monitor.

2. Printer

Printers are devices used to create physical copies of documents. Printer keeps evolving now we can find a cutting printer that can cut stickers. The 3D printer can produce things in 3 dimensions and even can produce a house.

Dot Matrix Printer

A matrix printer prints out a series of x-y points on a sheet of paper. It uses a series of small metal plates that are placed on a moving carriage. The dot matrix printer is loud, it prints images and text in dots forms on paper.

Inkjet Printer

An inkjet printer is a printer that uses inkjet cartridges to print text and images. Inkjet printers are popular because they are fast and prints in colors.

Laser printer

A laser printer is a device that prints documents by projecting a beam of light from a laser printer head onto a sheet of paper. Laser printers use a variety of printheads that can print text, graphics, photos, and even three-dimensional objects.


A plotter is a device used to produce images on a medium such as paper, film, or electronic display. They are used in a variety of applications including engineering, surveying, mapping, and advertising.

3. Projector

A computer projector is a machine that uses a light source, such as a lamp, and a lens to produce an image on a screen. The lamp has high wattage and is very hot as a result to produce a bright projection.

4. Modem

A modem is an output device that sends electrical signals to transmit data over the telephone line. There are many different types of modems, but all of them use electrical signals to transmit data over the telephone line or fiber optic.

Analog modem

An analog modem is a modem that uses analog signals to send and receive data over telephone lines. The modem is convert digital signals into analog and is sent via a telephone line at the other end it converts back from an analog signal to a digital signal and is processed by the computer.

WIFI modem

A modem that converts and sends internet data packets wirelessly via cellular phone network 3G, 4G, and 5G. Modem WIFI is sometimes called MIFI.

DSL modem

A device that connects a computer or network to DSL for Internet access. Dial-up is slower than DSL, but the cable modem is faster. The connection is asynchronous. Upload speed is slower than download speed to prevent low-cost DSL subscribers from hosting high-traffic Web servers. Telephone companies may modify a user’s IP address to prohibit Web hosting.

In conclusion, there are many types of output devices that you can use to send information to the outside world. We have discussed some of them in this article. If you need to know about input devices, you can check here.

Computer Input Devices

Computer Input Devices

A computer input device is basically a tool that you use to interact with a computer system. It is used to input information into a computer system. This can include keyboards, mice, touch screens, and other input devices.

Example of input device that you are using:

1. keyboard is a device used to input text or characters into a computer system. You always use a keyboard when operating a computer.

2. Mouse/Mice is a pointing device that is typically held in one hand and used for selecting or controlling the movements of a cursor on a display screen.

3. Touchscreen is a device that allows you to interact with a computer by touching the screen. Touchscreen replacing a computer mouse.

4. Microphone is a device used to capture sound from human, a speaker, or any sound in the environment.

5. Web Cam is a digital camera that captures still or video images in a live video stream. Webcams are used in a variety of applications, including online video chatting, online education, video blogging, and video recording.

6. Stylus pen is a small, handheld device that provides a precision writing experience. It is typically used to write on a touchscreen display or to annotate or highlight text.

7. Joystick is a control device that allows the user to move a character or vehicle in a game. It is a pointing device that is used to control the direction and speed of movement.

8. Digitizer is a digital pen that can write without touching the screen.

9. VR Virtual Reality is a simulated environment that allows users to experience a three-dimensional environment that is separate from the real world. Users can use virtual reality devices to interact with the environment, which can be used for gaming, education, or communication.

10. Scanner is a device that can read text or images from a physical medium, such as a document or photograph.

What is Cache Memory?

What is Cache Memory?

Cache memory is a special type of memory that is used to store recently used information. This memory is fast and efficient, so it is usually used to speed up the performance of a computer system.

If you are using a personal computer (PC), it is very likely that you have some form of cache memory. There are three main types of cache memory: the processor cache, the video cache and the main memory.

A processor cache is a small section of RAM used by a microprocessor for temporary storage of data and instructions.

Video cache is similar to the processor cache, but it stores information about images that are being displayed on the screen.

The main memory is a type of RAM that holds the bulk of the computer’s programs and data. The cache memory is used to store recently used information in order to make the program or the data accessible as quickly as possible.

What is the purpose of cache memory?

Cache memory is implemented to speed up the process of computing. In the CPU sub-system instead of fetching data directly from RAM, it fetches data required from the cache memory that acted as a buffer between CPU and RAM.

Cache memory in Harddisk also serves faster data required by RAM, instead of reading directly from Harddisk that needs to spin the disk, RAM will read from cache memory first.

What is Computer Memory?

What is Computer Memory?

Computer memory is a term used to describe the physical storage devices used to store data on a computer. The most common type of computer memory is RAM, which stands for Random Access Memory.

RAM is a volatile memory, which means it is temporary and loses its information when you turn off your computer. It is used to store programs that are being executed.

ROM is another form of computer memory that is used in computers. The first personal computers did not have RAM, but they had a permanent memory device called a PROM. A PROM was used to store instructions for the computer. The computer would run the program when it turned on.

A harddisk and SSD is a non volatile memory. It will keep the data even when your computer is turned off. Non-volatile memory is used to store the information about your files that are already saved on your computer.

11 Examples of Utility Softwares To Help You Stay Productive

11 Examples of Utility Softwares To Help You Stay Productive

In this post, we give you information about examples of utility software available for Windows and Mac. We cover some of the most popular utility software for anti-virus, file management, backup utilities, Storage Device Management Utilities, Data Synchronization Tools, Disk Clean-Up Tool
Debugger, Screen Savers, Clipboard Managers, System Monitors, System Profilers, and Registry Cleaners.

What is utility software?

Utility software is software that has a specific function and helps users solve a specific problem. Utility software helps computers use their full potential.

The purpose of utility software

Utility software includes programs like anti-virus and anti-spyware programs. These programs do many useful things such as checking your computer for viruses and spyware and fixing problems.

Internal and External Utility Software

Internal utility software usually comes with the operating system that you are using. For example, there is utility software for Microsoft Windows that makes your computer faster. That’s an internal utility.

But there is also external utility software that people can use on their computers to make them work better. Like, you can buy a utility software for Photoshop that lets you work faster.

Utility software Examples and their function

1. Antivirus Utility Software

Antivirus is created to protect your computer from viruses, malware, and other malicious code. A virus is a piece of code that can replicate itself and thus will use the computer’s resources and make the system halted or even corrupted.
Malware does not replicate itself but does the unwanted process on behalf of our computer.

When the computer is connected to a network, a virus will spread via the network and infect the other computer which doesn’t have an antivirus utility program.

For Examples:

Mc Afee Antivirus, Norton Antivirus, Kaspersky, AVG Antivirus, and many more.

2. File Management Utilities

File management files will help you in organizing files, especially when you have a lot of files, you will need this software. With file management utility software you can find the file you are looking for quickly. Can copy or overwrite to another computer via a network or within the same computer.

It also can change the file attribute and other managing files stuff.

  • Dokmee
  • ProofHub
  • Google Drive
  • Alfresco
  • Microsoft Sharepoint
  • M-Files
  • OnlyOffice
  • DocuWare
  • LogicalDoc
  • Hightail

3. Backup Files Utilities

Backup utility software will make sure you have copies of your valuable data.  The backup program will copy the whole or partial data when they are changed or are new.


4. Storage Device Management Utilities

A storage device management utility allows a user to manage his storage devices from a central point. It can also monitor them. If they don’t work properly, the storage device manager will inform you of this problem. You can use it to check the space left of the storage device, to manage its partitions.


5. Data Synchronization Tools

For example, you are at home, and you have a lot of data stored on your computer (for example, e-mails, photos, text documents). If you are away from home for a week, you would like all the data stored on your computer to be automatically synchronized with your smartphone or tablet. This process is called data synchronization.


6. Disk Clean-Up Tool

Disk Clean-up tool is a computer program that helps you free up disk space. The program removes unwanted files from your hard drive.

  • CCleaner.
  • CleanMyMac X.
  • Treesize.
  • CleanMyPC.

7. Screen Savers

When the computer has been idle for a predetermined period of time, a screensaver (also known as a screen saver) will either blank the display screen or fill it with moving images or patterns. On CRT and plasma computer monitors, screensavers were designed to prevent phosphor burn-in (as the name depicted).

Despite the fact that most modern monitors are immune to this problem, artists and gamers can still make use of it by displaying various moving things on their computer screens. They can make your PC look awesome when it’s not in use.

For Examples:

8. Clipboard Managers

A clipboard manager software allows you to copy things like websites, files, pictures and even text from one place on your computer to another. It helps you manage all of these items by making them easily available for later use.

9. System Monitors

Monitoring a certain condition of a sub-system of the computer is a daunting task if you don’t use a program. People will get tires but the program will not. When they found a certain condition that meets your requirements it will alert you and do a certain task that you program before.

  • Zabbix
  • Spiceworks Network Monitor
  • Nagios
  • OpManager by ManageEngine
  • WhatsUp Gold.
  • Cacti
  • Icinga
  • OpenNMS

10. System Profilers

It lets you see what’s running on your system by collecting performance data and analyzing them. It helps you to find out how your computer works and diagnose problems. It also can be used for optimization.

11. Registry Cleaners

Registry cleaners are computer programs that clean up your computer registry. A registry is a database that contains information about every file on your computer, such as what program it was used for, what version of that program you have installed, when you last opened it, etc. Registry cleaners remove errors, problems, and corruption, which is necessary for your computer to run smoothly.

Advanced SystemCare
Auslogics Registry Cleaner
Wise Registry Cleaner

Utility software license types

Some utility software uses licenses as:

Trialware, which means you can use it for a certain period of time. During the trial period, the software usually has limited features, but others give full features.

Freeware, you don’t need to pay for a license, make a donation, or limit how many times you download or open the program. It is, nevertheless, constrictive in several respects.

Adware, often known as ad-supported software, generates cash for its creators by automatically displaying advertisements on your computer.

Related posts:

What Is Computer Hardware?

What Is Computer?

6 Parts of A Computer You Should Know22

Uses Of Laptop In Business And Daily Life To Get A Better Results


9 Types of Web Browser You Need To Know

Types of web browser – Before we talk about various types of web browsers that we can use to surf the Internet, we need to know some terms that are used in this article:

What is Web Browser?

In order to access the internet, we need a web browser, which is installed on the computer. With a web browser such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, or Microsoft Edge (the successor to Internet Explorer), you can get online and browse the Internet to find information.

Ideally, a website should be compatible with as wide a range of browsers as possible when it is being developed. In order to be available to the widest possible audience.

Web browser features like bookmarking and tabbed browsing make it easier for users to get around on the web and engage with the content on individual pages. The ability to debug websites, examine network data, and examine their source code is now included in many browsers. Spell check, malware prevention, and content screening can all be added via plug-ins.

What does the URL stand for?

A URL (uniform resource location) is a unique identifier for each website. In the same way that you have a physical address, you have an IP address on the internet. When you input a URL in the browser’s address box and press Enter, the browser takes you to the page corresponding to the URL you typed in. URL examples: https://yunarwinardi.com https://www.google.com

Cookies and Cache

Cookies, which make it easier to navigate the internet, are enabled by default in most browsers. In order to save time, the login fields on some websites automatically fill with the user’s login information. This is due to the browser’s cookies.

Login information, screen names, and passwords are all stored in cookies, which are little text files. As a result, cookies must be removed on a regular basis in order to maintain account security and prevent data theft. In order to prevent cookies from being kept on the browser, you would need to surf in private mode.

When typing in a website’s URL, many users may notice that it takes a few extra seconds before the page appears. If the internet connection is slow, it may take longer to complete the task. The files on the server are read by the browser. These files are saved to the device’s hard drive. Caching is the name given to this procedure. By using caching, you can view web pages saved locally on your computer more quickly.

The History of Web Browsers and WWW

In 1990, Tim Berners-Lee created WORLD WIDE WEB, the first web browser. After two years, the Lynx browser was released, a text-based browser. It had a number of drawbacks, such as the inability to display graphics.

Moving on, the first widely used browser, called Mosaic, was released in 1993. It wasn’t until 1994 that Netscape Navigator was released, after a few tweaks. In 1995, Microsoft released Internet Explorer, which was the first browser to support JavaScript.

In 2003, Apple released its own browser, Safari, designed only for Macs. Mozilla released Firefox in late 2004. In 2008, Google Chrome, the most popular browser on the Internet, was created. Later in 2011, Opera Mini, a mobile-optimized version of the browser, was made available. The Microsoft Edge browser was released to the public in 2015.

Search engines vs. web browsers

Many people (including my sister-in-law) think that web browsers is search engines, this is not correct. Because they can be used as search engines, but actually web browsers are not Search Engines.

How do distinguish between Search Engine and Web Browser?

Search Engine
When you try to find an answer on the Internet, you type it into the address bar, that is the search engine, not the browser. Your address bar automatically searches the web for you if it doesn’t recognize an address or domain.

Web browsers?
A viewable web page is generated by web browsers by rendering HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) and XML code. The code for a web page is downloaded from a web server by the browser, which then interprets and displays the code.

What you see on your social media is actually thousands of lines of code that have been translated by web browser. Here is the list of 9 web browsers that are available for you to choose from:

1. Microsoft Edge

When you upgrade to Windows 10, you’ll get a new web browser called Microsoft Edge. It is now the default web browser, taking the place of Microsoft’s IE. In addition to being open-source, it supports the most recent web standards.
The integrated PDF reader in Microsoft Edge is one of the most useful. You don’t need to install a separate PDF reader to view and annotate PDF files. However, Microsoft Edge isn’t ideal. It doesn’t have as many extensions as other browsers, and it doesn’t support several older web standards.

2. Google Chrome

Google created this browser, which was first made available as a beta on September 2nd, 2008 for Windows users. Chrome has a global market share of more than 50 percent, making it one of the most popular web browsers in use today.
By clicking this link, you may get the most recent version of this browser Install Google Chrome on your computer. https://www.google.com/chrome/

3. Firefox, a web browser powered by Mozilla

Mozilla has spawned a new browser called Firefox. Despite its relatively recent debut in 2004, it has quickly risen to the status of the Internet’s second-most popular browser. Click here to get the most recent version of this browser. https://www.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/new/

4. Safari by Apple Inc.

Apple Inc.’s Safari is a web browser included with the Mac OS X operating system. In January 2003, a public beta version of the program was made available. The most recent technologies, including XHTML and CSS2, are well-supported in Safari.
By clicking this link, you may get the most recent version of this browser Take a look at Safari
Safari lets you know if your activities are being monitored. However, the browser is closed source, so proceed with caution. We advise you to thoroughly consider your options before making a decision. https://support.apple.com/downloads/safari

5. Brave Web Browser

Brave’s privacy scheme has recently come under fire for reasons linked to bitcoin and blockchain.
While other browsers use the Chromium platform, Brave’s built-in ad and tracker blocking, privacy-focused design, and the opportunity to earn Basic Attention Tokens (BAT) by viewing advertising set it apart from the competition. https://brave.com/

6. Konqueror

Open Source web browser Konqueror supports Java applets, JavaScript, CSS 1, CSS 2, and Netscape plug-ins and is HTML 4. 01 compliant. There are basic cut/copy/paste actions and comprehensive remote and local network file browsing capabilities available in this file manager that also serves as a file manager for local UNIX filesystems.
Click here to get the most recent version of this browser. Take a look at Konqueror

7. Tor

If the exit node issue is just a blip on the radar, we say go for it.
Tor is a free, open-source anonymous web browser that protects your online privacy and freedom from network traffic analysis.
Onion routing is a technique that uses layered layers to encrypt your communication over and over again. The browser then distributes your data to a smattering of machines located all around the world at random. When you utilize the Tor network, websites you visit will only see the IP address of the Tor server, not your own. This makes it far more difficult for someone to trace what you do online. https://www.torproject.org/

8. Lynx

Unix, VMS, and other platforms running cursor-addressable character cell terminals or emulators are supported by Lynx, a full-featured World Wide Web browser
Click here to get the most recent version of this browser. Lynx can be downloaded here.

9. Opera

Opera web browser offers fast, secure, and free ads on both Desktop and mobile. The chat capability is built-in with the browser. Opera also offers a free VPN connection when browsing the Internet. https://www.opera.com/

What is the best web browser for me?

It all comes down to personal preference. However, you might find this comparison table of various web browsers useful in making a decision.

I am mostly using Chrome because it has lots of extensions that are useful for my work however sometimes I use Edge to make sure the website I am working on has the correct look.

You use your preferred web browser listed above. The look and functionality of each browser vary. Add-ons are available for most browsers, allowing you to tailor your browsing experience.

You can use a browser extension to prevent advertising from appearing on online pages.
In addition to ad blockers and private browsing modes, several web browsers have incognito or private browsing modes.

This prevents the browser from keeping information about the websites you visit, thereby protecting your privacy. For instance, when you dismiss the Safari window in private browsing mode, all cookies, website data, and history are erased from the computer.

A private browsing option in Firefox removes all cookies and browsing history when the window is closed. Consider using a browser with tracking protection or do not track options if you desire a more private online experience (like Firefox, Brave, or Tor). When you use do not track, websites are told not to track your online activities.

It’s safest when it’s hidden from view

You can’t afford to let your online security go in the face of the numerous dangers on the internet. That said, a virtual private network (VPN) is the best approach to ensure that your internet activity isn’t monitored. Whatever browser you’re using, a virtual private network (VPN) is always a good idea. So, if you’re wanting to improve your online security.

What Is Computer Network and Why Every Business Need Them?

What Is Computer Network and Why Every Business Need Them?

What is computer network – A computer network ( sometimes called a Network) is a system that connects a number of different computers that are not connected to one another in order to share information (data) and resources. Users are able to converse with greater ease thanks to the seamless integration of computers and several other gadgets. A group of two or more computers that are connected to one another over a network is known as a computer network. Either wired or wireless media can be utilized to successfully create a connection to a network.

Network Topology

Network topology is a structure of a network that can be logical or physical. Some Network Topology that are commonly used:

Bus Topology

A bus topology network is a computer network that connects computers or servers, printers, and other network devices to a single cable. This type of network is now rarely used.

Ring Topology

This type of topology is referred to as a ring topology due to the fact that one computer is connected to another, with the last computer being connected to the first computer. precisely two neighbors are assigned to each device. The data moves in only one direction around the ring as it is transmitted.

Star Topology

The devices in the star topology do not have direct connections to one another but instead must route data through a device called a hub or a switch.

In this topology, every computer or network device is connected via a hub or switch. Direct connection between the devices is not possible. As an exchange, the controller or hub is used. This topology is what we are using today.

Mesh Topology

Mesh topology has a dedicated connection to every other device. This link is one that exclusively transmits data between the two devices it connects.

A fully-connected mesh network uses all the available channels, and requires n *(n 1./2 physical connections.

How does a computer network work

The foundation of any network is the switch. Switches are used to connect multiple computers and printers to the network. A switch has an uplink port and a downlink port. If you plug a cable into a computer, it will go through the uplink port and into the switch. When you plug a cable into a printer, it will go through the downlink port and out of the switch.

Computer Networking Devices

In a computer network there are several devices or components that made up the network, they are:

Network Interface Card

The network interface card (NIC) is a card that plugs into a computer’s motherboard and provides an interface to the computer’s network. NIC can be wired or wireless.

Network Cable

Network cables are used to connect computers or networks. The cable can be Fiber Optic or Ethernet cables. Fiber optic can reach a distance area (several kilometers), can send data faster, is very small, expensive, and is usually used to connect 2 separate buildings. The Ethernet cable looks like a telephone cable but is bigger because it has eight cables inside it. The maximum length between computers or hub/switch is 100 meters.


Every computer that has NIC (ethernet adapter) is connected via a hub. Hub can have several ports that can be used by a station, server, or printer. Hub share their bandwidth with the computers that connect to them.


A swith is an advanced version of a hub, it gives better performance when transmitting data among computers.


The router is responsible for routing packets between different networks. It determines the best route to take based on the destination and the routing table.

Access Point

You can imagine the access point as a wireless hub or switch. Wireless computers are connected to an access point instead of to a hub.

Network printers

Are printers that are connected to a network, rather than being plugged into a computer. This allows you to print documents, photos, and other files from anywhere on your network.


A computer system that provides services for users, in a company it can be a file server that provides files to every networked users or a database server that processes data and make the output to the users.

Different Types of computer networks

There are many different kinds of networks, each serving a distinct function even though their overarching goals are comparable. The following are some broad categories that are used to classify modern networks.

Local-area network (LAN)

A local area network (LAN) is a collection of devices connected to a single network, such as a home or office network. It’s a group of computers, printers, and other network-connected devices that work together to share resources and information. A LAN can be large or small. For example, a LAN in a large company with hundreds of employees and thousands of devices would be called a corporate network.

Wide-area network (WAN)

A WAN is a type of network that connects computers and networks in different locations. These locations may be at different offices, cities, states, or even countries. A WAN is made up of several different types of connections such as fiber optic lines, satellite communications, DSL, cable, or wireless. WANs connect the LANs of an organization so that users can share information between each other.


Intranet is a network that uses public network such as the Internet as a medium to connect to other private networks in a different location. Instead of building their own infrastructure which is very expensive to connect to their other private network located in different areas even countries, they use the Internet to communicate. When using the Internet, they create tunnel and encryption so the data only available tho their network.


The internet is the largest network computer that enables computer networks of businesses, schools, governments, and other organizations from all over the world to connect with each other and share information. As a result, there is a complex network of cables, computers, servers, data centers, routers, satellites, and wireless towers that are required to transmit data around the world.

The Internet is an enormous network that connects other networks and serves as an infrastructure for networking. It creates a network that connects millions of computers all over the world, making it possible for any computer to communicate with any other computer on the network as long as both computers are connected to the Internet. The Internet is a worldwide network of computers that are linked together and communicate and share information through the use of a defined set of protocols known as the Internet Protocol Suite.

Service-provider network

Service providers are the people who build, own, and operate the Internet. They can provide a service that connects two different computers together. A service provider can be a company like AT&T or Verizon, or it can be an individual that provides a service to many different people.

Why do People Need Computer Network

Without well-designed computer networks, no sector of the economy—be it education, retail, finance, technology, the government, or healthcare—can continue to function normally. When an organization grows in size, the network inevitably becomes more complicated. Before beginning the laborious process of developing and installing a computer network, there are a few primary goals that absolutely need to be thought through.

Goals to Achieve When Implementing a Computer Network

1. Resource sharing

It’s not enough to just share information; you need to make it easily accessible and sharable. If you can do that, you can achieve success.

When you are using data to make business decisions, you need to have access to reliable data. This means you need a system that can accurately record data and provide this information to the people who need it.

2. Resource availability & reliability

This is a key point for companies that provide services in areas where the internet is not always reliable. If you need to be able to access a resource at any time, it is important that the resource is available in multiple places. This also applies to companies that offer goods or services that are dependent on the internet.

3. Performance management

The amount of work required by a corporation only increases as it expands. The performance of the system as a whole is improved as well as the capacity to accommodate further expansion when one or more processors are added to the network. The lookup and fetch times of data can be greatly improved by saving it in databases with a good architecture.

4. Cost savings

Large mainframe computers are expensive, but adding processors to them at strategic points can improve their performance and save money in the long run. The best time to do this is when they are new. By adding processors as needed, you can use the existing hardware for longer, and save money in the process.

5. Increased storage capacity

Employees that work with large amounts of data might benefit tremendously from the use of network-connected storage devices. For instance, each individual member of the data science team does not require their own separate data warehouses for the extremely large number of records that they process. The work can be done in an even more effective manner with the help of centralized repositories. The ability to increase storage capacity is essential in today’s world, as organizations are witnessing record quantities of client data coming into their systems.

6. Streamlined collaboration & communication

The day-to-day operations of a firm are profoundly influenced by the networks that are in place. Employees are able to more effectively share files, view one other’s work, synchronize their calendars, and communicate their thoughts with one another. Internal messaging platforms like Slack, which allow for unrestricted flow of information and discourse, are utilized by all businesses operating in the current day. Despite this, emails are still the preferred method of professional communication with customers, business partners, and suppliers.

7. Minimize errors

Networks help to eliminate errors by ensuring that all parties involved obtain information from a single source, even if they are viewing it from separate locations. This is done even if they are accessing it from many locations. The data that has been backed up ensures consistency and continuity. There isn’t going to be much of a hassle involved in making standardized versions of customer and staff guides accessible to a big number of individuals.

What Is Computer Hardware?

What Is Computer Hardware?

Computer hardware is everything that makes up a computer. It’s all the physical parts of a computer that make it work. From the processor to the memory, it’s all part of the hardware.

A computing device is composed of hardware and software. Hardware includes things like the motherboard, memory, hard drive, processor, etc. Software includes programs, operating systems, applications, and so on. The two work together to make the device do what it was designed to do.

Internal hardware component in a computer

A computer is composed of many different types of internal hardware, including the CPU, RAM, hard drive, motherboard, video card, etc.

This is a screenshot of what a typical internal computer hardware components looks like.

External hardware component in a computer

External hardware components are those items that are often externally connected to the computer to control either input or output functions. These hardware devices are designed to either provide instructions to the software (input) or render results from its execution (output).

Computer Hardware vs Software

The term hardware means tangible components of a computer that are physical, such as its screen, keyboard, hard drive, speakers, etc. Software refers to the programs and functions of a computer that allow the hardware to be used.

The software is the intangible component of the gadget that enables the user to communicate with the hardware and direct it to carry out a variety of tasks according to their instructions. The following are some examples of computer software:

Because they are not actual physical keyboards, virtual keyboards on mobile devices and laptop computers are also regarded to be forms of software.

Because the software and hardware of a computer are dependent on one another to produce useful output, the software must be designed to function correctly with the hardware in order for the computer to be useful.

How Does Hardware Communicate with Software?

Hardware communicates with software using drivers. Drivers are programs that allow the hardware to talk to the operating system. The drivers are stored on the hard drive and the operating system reads them into memory so they can be executed.

Can Hardware run without software?

Hardware that does not require software are very basic devices. For example, a basic pair of headphones require no software or instructions because they’re only passing the audio from a computer to your ears. If you have a laptop or a smartphone, then you can use the headphone jack on those devices.

What is Hardware upgrade?

If you’re wondering what a hardware upgrade is, then you should know that it’s any new hardware that’s better than what it replaces or additional hardware that improves performance. The most common examples of hardware upgrades are RAM upgrades, CPU upgrades, hard drives, and GPUs.

Hardware Virtualization

Hardware virtualization is the separation of hardware resources from the software that utilizes them. Simply described, hardware virtualization is when software is used to construct virtual representations of hardware instead of employing physical, tangible hardware components for some computing function.

Hardware virtualization, also known as platform or server virtualization, is done by host software on a specific hardware platform. It requires a hypervisor, a virtual machine manager that builds virtual representations of internal hardware. This allows the hardware resources of a single physical machine to be shared and utilised more efficiently by several operating systems and applications.

In cloud computing, hardware virtualization is frequently related with infrastructure as a service (IaaS), a delivery paradigm that provides physical resources over a high-speed Internet connection. A cloud service provider (CSP) such as Amazon Web Services or Microsoft Azure hosts all the hardware components that are normally present in an on-premises data center, such as servers, storage and networking infrastructure, as well as the software that enables virtualization.

What is hardware as a service?

In addition to purchasing computer hardware and periodically replacing or upgrading it, individuals and corporations can also lease physical and virtual hardware from a service provider. The supplier is then responsible for maintaining the hardware, including all of its physical components and software, up to date.

This model is called as HaaS.

The greatest benefit of HaaS is that it minimizes the expenses of hardware purchases and maintenance, allowing businesses to switch from a capital expense budget to a typically less expensive operational expense budget. Also, because the majority of HaaS products are based on a pay-as-you-go basis, it is easier for businesses to control expenses while still having access to the hardware they require for operational and business continuity.

HaaS involves the installation of physical components belonging to a managed service provider (MSP) at a customer’s location. A service level agreement (SLA) outlines each party’s responsibilities.

The customer may pay a monthly price for utilizing the MSP’s hardware, or its use may be included in the fee structure for installing, monitoring, and maintaining the hardware. If the hardware malfunctions or becomes obsolete, the MSP is responsible for repairing or replacing it.

Depending on the requirements of the SLA, decommissioning hardware may involve erasing proprietary data, physically destroying hard drives, and confirming that obsolete equipment has been discarded in accordance with the law.

What Is Computer Software?

What Is Computer Software?

What is software – software is a set of written instructions that enables a computer to do a certain task. The user can utilize the software to control the functionality of the computer’s hardware. In other words, software allows a computer to execute activities that the hardware alone cannot. For instance, when a computer is turned on, it cannot accomplish any task unless it has been given specific instructions.

The instructions may be saved as a computer program. In other words, a program is a series of instructions needed to complete a task. The computer is capable of executing the program in order to complete the task.


How does software work?

Software is a method for instructing computers to carry out particular activities. For instance, software enables you to play games, listen to music, send and receive e-mail, and watch movies on your computer. Applications software can be used for a variety of purposes, including business, education, and recreation. System software constitutes the basis of an operating system. It allows the computer’s hardware to cooperate.


Hardware versus software

Software and hardware are interdependent; neither can be utilized independently. A book offers a helpful analogy. The hardware of a book is the pages and ink. The program consists of the words, sentences, paragraphs, and overall meaning. A computer without software is like to a book with empty pages. A computer requires software to be helpful, just as a book requires words to be relevant.

While both are essential, there are significant distinctions between the two:

Computer Hardware

Hardware refers to the computer’s physical components. Computer Hardware consists of all tangible components of a computer. These are the basic electronic components that comprise a computer. Processor, Memory Devices, Monitor, Printer, Keyboard, Mouse, and Central Processing Unit are examples of computer hardware.

Computer Software

Software is a collection of instructions, procedures, and documentation that enables a computer system to accomplish various tasks. Computer Software is also a code that is run by a computer’s CPU. The code may be written at the machine level or for an operating system. Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Google Chrome, Photoshop, MySQL, etc., are examples of software.

Software Classification

Not all software is created equal, there are much software with different functions and target users we can classify them into several categories as below:

Application program

Application software consists of numerous applications that execute specialized tasks for end users, such as report drafting and website navigation. Additionally, applications can do tasks for other programs. Applications on a computer cannot operate independently. They cannot function without the operating system and other system software programs.

These desktop apps are installed on a user’s computer and utilize its memory to perform tasks. They occupy space on the hard disk and do not require an internet connection to function. However, desktop apps must conform to the specifications of the hardware devices on which they run.

Web programs, on the other hand, require only an internet connection to function. They operate independently of the hardware and system software. Consequently, users can access online apps using web browser-equipped devices. Since the application’s functional components reside on the server, users can launch the application from Windows, Mac, Linux, or any other operating system.

Developing software

Programming software, which is classified as system software, is not utilized by the end user. It is utilized by programmers who write code. Programming software is used to create, test, and debug other software, including application and system software. These applications function as a type of translator. It transforms programming languages like as Python and C++ into machine language code, which a computer can understand.

Driver application

Also categorized as a sort of system software, driver software operates and controls devices and peripherals connected to a computer, allowing the device to execute its specified function. Displays, sound cards, printers, mouse, and hard drives are hardware devices that require a driver to connect to a system.

Drivers enable software systems to interact using a standard language, as there are different sorts of devices. By default, an operating system includes drivers for a mouse, keyboard, and printer, therefore third-party installations are unnecessary. The driver may need to be installed externally on advanced devices. If different operating systems, such as Linux, Windows, or Mac, are utilized, drivers must be maintained separately for each. These are examples of drivers:

Device drivers can execute in kernel mode or user mode. Operating a driver in user mode enhances system stability, as a badly built user mode driver cannot cause a system crash by overwriting kernel memory. In contrast, kernel mode is preferred for networking with minimal latency.


Computer software

System software is located between hardware and application software. Users do not engage directly with system software, which runs in the background and manages the computer’s fundamental functions. This program coordinates the hardware and software of a system so that users can execute high-level application software to conduct specified tasks. When a computer system boots up, system software executes and continues to operate as long as the system is on.


Planning and execution

The software development lifecycle is a framework used by project managers to outline the phases and responsibilities associated with designing software. The initial phases of the design lifecycle consist of planning the endeavor, understanding the needs of the people who will use the software, and developing precise requirements. The objective of the design phase, which follows the first requirements study, is to specify how to meet user requirements.

The following step is implementation, when the development phase is concluded, followed by software testing. The maintenance phase include all tasks necessary to maintain the system operational.

The software design includes a description of the software’s to-be-implemented structure, data models, interfaces between system components, and potentially the techniques the software engineer will employ.

The software design procedure converts customer requirements into a format that computer programmers can utilize to code and implement applications. The software engineers construct the software design in an iterative manner, adding detail and modifying the design as they progress.


Maintaining software quality

The quality of software is determined by whether or not it meets both its functional and nonfunctional requirements.

Functional requirements define the capabilities of the software. They comprise technical information, data manipulation and processing, calculations, and any other function that indicates what an application intends to achieve.

Nonfunctional requirements, sometimes known as quality qualities, dictate how a system should function. Portability, disaster recovery, security, privacy, and usability are examples of non-functional needs.

Software testing identifies and resolves technical faults in the software source code and evaluates the product’s overall usability, performance, security, and compatibility to verify it satisfies the specifications.


Software Quality Maintenance:

To maintain the quality of software once it has been deployed, developers must continuously adjust it to suit new client requests and address problems identified by users. This involves enhancing functionality, resolving bugs, and modifying the software’s source code to prevent problems. The length of time a product remains on the market is contingent on developers’ ability to meet these maintenance requirements.


Modern software engineering

DevOps is an organizational methodology that combines software development and IT operations teams. It encourages collaboration and communication between the two groups. Additionally, the word refers to the usage of iterative software development techniques that employ automation and programmable infrastructure. Get the complete picture with our comprehensive guide to DevOps.


SaaS vs. on-premise

Software can be delivered in a variety of methods, with cloud computing and on-premises deployment being the most popular.

Cloud computing is the transmission of computer services over the internet, as opposed to relying on local servers or personal devices to manage programs. Servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence are examples of computing services. These web-accessible services are transferred outside of an organization’s firewall. Software as a Service (SaaS) is a cloud computing service paradigm that enables remote access to software, its functionality, and subsequent upgrades via an Application Service Provider (ASP).

On-premises software is implemented within the physical boundaries of an enterprise, typically in the data center. IT personnel have physical access to the data and direct control over the configuration, management, and security of the computer infrastructure and data by installing and executing software on hardware situated within the company’s premises.

Typically, companies that supply SaaS sell their services using a subscription model in which clients pay a specific amount each week, month, or year in exchange for the service. Using SaaS, businesses just pay for the resources they consume. In contrast, organizations who choose for on-premise are responsible for the ongoing server hardware expenditures, power usage, and space requirements.

A corporation with on-premises software keeps greater security control. They are accountable for establishing user access regulations, implementing firewalls, antivirus software, and security upgrades, and preventing cyberattacks. Companies with appropriate IT support should not worry about a third party managing their confidential information. On-premises servers can render a corporation exposed to security breaches if they are mishandled.

With cloud computing, the cloud provider manages the data. Large cloud service companies have strong security teams and stringent protocols. With all the sensitive data they store, however, they give hackers with an enticing target. Consider the cloud service provider’s security policies to ensure the safety of your data.

Patents and licensing for software

A software license is a legally enforceable document that places restrictions on the use and distribution of software.

Typically, software licenses allow users to make multiple copies of the licensed software without breaking copyright. The license specifies the responsibilities of the parties to the agreement and may impose usage limits on the program.

Generally, software licensing terms and conditions include fair use of the software, liability limitations, warranties, disclaimers, and protections in the event that the software or its use infringes on the intellectual property rights of others.

Typically, licenses pertain to proprietary software, which remains the property of the organization, group, or person who created it. or for free software, where users are permitted to run, study, modify, and distribute the software. Open source is a type of software in which the source code is openly accessible and the software is produced cooperatively. Similar to free software, open source software licenses allow users to run, copy, share, and modify the software.

Over the course of the past two decades, software providers have shifted from selling software licenses on a one-time basis to a subscription-based approach. Customers pay a monthly fee to access the software over the internet, which is hosted by software vendors in the cloud.

Although copyright can prevent others from copying a developer’s code, it cannot prevent them from independently producing identical software without copying. A patent, on the other hand, enables a developer to block a third party from utilizing the functional components of software claimed in a patent, even if the third party independently developed the software.

In general, the more complex the software, the greater the likelihood that it can be patented. A software product may be given a patent if, for instance, it establishes a new type of database structure or improves the overall performance and functionality of a computer.


Popular software companies

The services provided by software companies fall into one of four types.

Programming services, system services, SaaS, and open source. Software licenses, maintenance services, subscription fees, and support fees generate money for vendors.

Microsoft offers the Windows operating system, the Office suite of apps, and the Azure cloud computing service. The world’s largest software corporation also creates server apps, tablets, and video game consoles.

Oracle provides cloud infrastructure and enterprise software solutions, such as the database software that has contributed to its success. Additionally, it distributes Java programming tools and supplies server and storage hardware. Oracle develops sales, service, marketing, finance, human resources, logistics, and manufacturing software.

SAP is a global software firm established in Germany that specializes in enterprise solutions. SAP delivers management and e-commerce software, as well as a variety of services that include software management and integration training and consultancy.

Adobe‘s product catalogue includes, amongst other things, the well-known Illustrator graphic design program, as well as the Acrobat document editing tool and the Photoshop photo editing tool. Other Adobe products cater to multimedia, creative endeavors, and digital marketing.

VMware is a software firm that specializes in computer technology management tools. Its core competencies include cloud computing and virtualization. Users are able to imitate the operating environments of personal computers on servers or desktop processors by using this company’s software.

History of software

Until the late 1950s, the term software was not used. Although other forms of programming software were invented during this time, they were often not commercially available. Consequently, users, mostly scientists and major businesses, were frequently required to create their own software.

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